Welcome to House of Education, AmblesideOnline's Curriculum
for grades 7-12.
This page has been created to help families transition from the lower years of Elementary school into the upper years of Junior High and High School.
We hope you will find the information on this page helpful and useful as you plan out your student's educational journey.
For general support and help with the HEO Book Lists and Schedules, please join the AO Forum!
Q. Why does HEO Y7 "look" so different from the lower years of AmblesideOnline?
The upper level book lists are more "meaty" than their lower year counterparts. This was done on purpose--and is in keeping with Charlotte Mason's original PNEU Programmes. Students are expected to be "ready" to handle the demands of a more advanced curriculum. Therefore, students read additional subjects such as Logic, Worldviews, and Current Events. They also begin formal Grammar and Writing instruction and will spend more time learning about a specific period in history. In the lower years, students read from a comprehensive history spine and used supplemental historical fiction to give them a broad overview of history. Beginning in Y7, students read primary source documents, historical biography and study literature that is specific to the period of study. HEO students are given an opportunity to spend an entire year reading about one period in time, focusing on one or two key persons, and studying the major political, social, and economic developments of the era.
Q. My child is entering 7th grade. Should I start her in Y7?
It depends. If your child has come up through AO Y1-6, then she should be ready for Y7. If this is her first year, you might consider using our Pre-Year 7 Book list and spending the summer or even an entire year reading some of the best books from the lower years.
Q. I am starting AO with a high schooler. Where should I begin? Is this even possible?
Again, this will depend on your student, his/her previous academic experience, and whether or not he/she is ready to read at the level of HEO. It is not uncommon for high schoolers (9-12th graders) to read Y7 or Y8. Do not feel that you must place your student at grade level. Instead, look over the AO/HEO book lists and then find a year that matches your student's skill level and abilities. It is important that you find a year that will challenge them, but not completely overwhelm them. Also keep in mind that high schoolers will be taking Math and Science courses in addition to their AO/HEO studies. Some advanced math and science courses require significant time to complete so plan accordingly and choose a year that will complement your student's interests.
Q. I have read that AO is so advanced that students do not need to complete all 12 years before they graduate? Is this true?
HEO is advanced curriculum and it is true that students who complete any or all of HEO will receive an excellent education. How much is enough? That is a tough question to answer and depends on many factors. Parents need to carefully consider their own students needs and abilities and plan accordingly.
Q. My student will not complete all of AO before 12th grade. Is Y9 or 10 enough for graduation?
AO was designed to be a full 1st-12th grade curriculum, and as such, students who begin AO in Y1 will normally matriculate after completion of Y12. Not all students begin AO in the beginning; many join during the lower years or Middle school years. You will need to decide "how much" of HEO needs to be completed based on the requirements of your state, your umbrella school or your own graduation requirements.
Q. Are HEO Y7-12 considered "Honors" level? They sure seem advanced to me, especially compared to other home school curriculum.
AO/HEO courses are advanced and that is probably the best way to describe them. It is not uncommon for high school students to begin HEO in Y7 and not in Y9. The course work involved and the amount of reading definitely merit the distinction of "honors" level. Some states, however, do not recognize any difference between a home school honors course and a general course. Therefore, parents should check with their state Department of Education, local school board, home school support group, curriculum advisor or umbrella group to find out if HEO courses qualify for "honors" distinction.
This is something compiled by the AO/HEO Planning list a few years ago when we were working on Year Seven. It's not legal information, and some of it is probably out of date now, but this should give you some starting ideas you might find helpful in figuring out credits. The links may not be working anymore, either. ~ Wendi Capehart
HomeLife Academy has a page for high school with a list of what credits are needed in which subjects.
Timeline to Help Juniors and Seniors Prepare for College: when to schedule PSAT, SAT, ACT, apply for financial aid, etc.
College Zone also has a college application timeline and information about the process.
CollegeView.com has posted College Application Tips, the application process, and information about what colleges are looking for.
CollegeBoard.org posts dates/locations and online sign-ups for SAT's, and has other helps.
SAT Prep Help has free downloadable SAT practice questions and study tips for many of the test sections.
SAT Test Dates Site also has test prep Math Video reviews
HowStuffWorks has a thorough article about How College Admission Works.
CollegeAtlas.com: "Search Online for Colleges and Universities throughout the World"
Consent of the Governed has a blog post about visiting colleges (when, how).
It will be difficult to design a 'perfect' high school curriculum for every state and country, because the requirements vary so much. That's why we like the idea of compiling a list of materials under various subjects. People can pick and choose, based on what's available and what works best for them.
Q. Why should homeschoolers look at credits and transcripts as done in public schools?
In the USA, homeschoolers must keep a transcript in order to join the armed services. The military WILL accept one done by the parents and notarized. Parents can also issue diplomas that are accepted by many colleges and workplaces, although colleges are more interested in test scores first, transcripts second and diplomas as a distant third.
Some states require more serious recordkeeping from homeschoolers. Getting an understanding of what other states require and how their state credits are counted will help some homeschoolers.
Charlotte Mason Method
While we don't think we need to worry too much in developing a Charlotte Mason high school program (meeting state public school requirements), it might be helpful to know how to plug in the books that are used under the 'right' subjects.
Q. Are all public school high schools created equal?
A. No. This is as good a place as any to mention that there are also Advanced Placement Programs, which can give students extra credit in both high school and college. There is some information online, including course descriptions of all their currently available courses.
Advanced Placement Website: http://apcentral.collegeboard.org/
Q. How many credits does a student need to graduate from public high school?
A. Depends on where you live. As mentioned above, check your local Board of Education to get current information for your specific area. In the USA, Barb Shelton says that 20 credits is the average number of required credits, which means the average 4 year plan, to graduate high school. So the average high school hser needs 5 credits in a year.
Q. So what is a credit and how do they work?A. There are different ways of accounting for credits. A Carnegie Unit is 150 clock hours of instruction, which can be broken up in several different ways. 150 regular 60-minute hours of time spent in a history class would equal one Carnegie Unit.
Q. Clock hours and 60 minute hours . . . what's the difference? Aren't all hours 60-minute hours?
A. No. Public education does things differently. All hours are not 60 minutes long. In educationese, they usually are less. Some states have laws that state that 180 50-minute hours of class time make up one high school credit. One father, who was a supervising social worker for the state of California and oversaw a good many teens in group homes whom he had to help get through school, says that 180 45-minute 'hours' make up one year of a high school course in California (CA).
The 180 x 50 minutes credit equals out to about 150 full sixty minute clock hours on a subject for one full credit - the same as a Carnegie Unit. CA, apparently, doesn't do Carnegies anymore. As a general rule, if your state is no longer using Carnegies, then the instruction time for their 'hours' has been reduced.
Q. But studying a subject for a full hour over 150 days doesn't sound very Charlotte Mason. I thought this was the House of Education?
A. Correct! It doesn't sound Charlotte Mason, and probably isn't. So, we don't have to do it their way!
Barb Shelton, author of Sr. High: A Home-Designed Form+U+la, available from her website, feels that 150 hours in any one subject is too much in one year and doesn't need to be done except in courses like English, where four (4) credits need to be completed in that one subject in four years. She would like to see some variety. For example, a student gets one credit in world history (not required by all states). The student does this by racking up 50 hours in each of three years, or 75 hours in each of two, or 100 in one year and fifty in another - or however you want to divide it (lots of spice and variety in a day possible this way-a la Charlotte Mason).
Q. Does it matter how the hours are accumulated?
A. The total is what matters. As homeschoolers, we can divide courses up however we like. If we even want to count (and some of the AO/HEO members are going to have to count, because of local regulations), we have this advantage because we do not have the limitations (location, class size, teacher availability, school year or day length, etc.) as the public school. We don't even have to fit in 150 clock hours in each subject in the same year to give credit. We can accumulate the clock hours over the full four years and write down the credit in that subject on the transcript (which Barb tells you how to do) whenever the student completes the hours - and that's, of course, if you're counting hours for credits - Barb does have other suggestions.
Q. Whoa, you're going too fast. I thought we were counting time for credits. How else would you do this?
A. For math instead of counting hours, she suggests just counting the math textbook. When the child has completed successfully the math book for that year, then he gets a credit for math- whether it took him 3 months or two years.
I would count Jay Wile's Apologia Biology book as one full credit in Biology, whether it took my child three months or three years to do it.
Q. Okay, back to credits: If public schools give credit for 50 and 45 minute hours, but we divide it differently, then aren't we still spending a lot of time on each subject, more than Charlotte Mason would recommend?
A. Good point. Barb only counts 120 clock hours instead of 150 (like some public schools). This is because she believes that a homeschooled student is getting much more out of each minute than a kid in public school. After visiting a couple public schools, she said that it could even be whittled down to 30 minutes of homeschool equaling 50 of public because we are able to use that time so much more efficiently than the public school.
Q. Using Charlotte Mason, we use so many different books - how many classes are we talking about listing on a transcript? Couldn't we end up with transcripts five thousand pages long? And won't it be silly to write down 1/16 of a credit, for a book that only took 1/16th of those funky hours to study?
A. Something else to keep in mind is that these are subjects, not really classes. For example, the average of 2 1/2 credits in social studies (which only translates to a measly 94 hours per year) could be broken down into several classes - Current Events (using World mag, or The World and I or something else in our daily news summaries); Geography; World History . . . .
Q. So you're saying we'd want to plug the various books under certain subjects?
A. Right, strictly for accounting purposes for those who need them. I would count Richard Maybury's books and CM's Ourselves as government, for example. Nature study and Jay Wile's Apologia textbook as well as nature reading could also go towards science, rather than be listed separately in a transcript.
Q. Do we really need to worry about this stuff for AO/HEO?
A. Probably not, although some members have more regulations to deal with, and might find it useful.
Q. Why is this being discussed if we don't really have to worry about it?
A. Because, some of us would have worried about it anyway, and the information will help those people to worry less, or at least to transfer their worries to something else.
Q. You mentioned that Barb Shelton suggested homeschooled kids could count their 'hours' as 30-45 minutes long. Isn't that cheating? If the public schools give credit for 50 minute hours (or 45 in CA), shouldn't we use their standard? After all, they are the experts.
A. Certainly they are the experts, the professionals. They do a far better job than we can - but exactly what is it they are better at doing? They are better at mass producing education - at warehousing children, at getting a large number of children to move more or less in unison through some predigested material.
Their methods work very well for their situation - but their situation isn't ours. They have limitations we don't have. The time block that is counted towards credit hours includes such things as five minutes at the start and end of class for settling in, getting materials out, and gathering them up. It includes time the students (and sometimes teacher) are just frittering away, time spent chasing rabbit trails, time wasted waiting on slow readers, time spent sitting idly while a slower student asks questions your student might already understand, or a brighter student leads the discussion into areas your student might find utterly confusing, time spent calling roll, playing silly games, and listening to announcements over the school's intercom system. When public schools refer to a credit equaling so many hours of class time, they refer to the 45 minute class, which contains perhaps 20 minutes of actual learning, in a good school. So why should we do things their way? Is that about as clear as mud? What it boils down to is that based on my research, I believe that for my children, who read quickly, 15 minutes of reading is the equivalent of at least one class session.
Q. Okay, tell me more about credits. We'd do 150 hours of credits in history in year 9, and that would be all the history they'd need to graduate, right?
A. Well, maybe, but our goal is more than just meeting public school requirements or duplicating what they are doing. We are different and we should do things based on our strengths, not the public school's weaknesses.
Q. Then why are you telling us all this stuff?
A. To build confidence!! Once parents of high schoolers see how little is really required by public schools they can quit worrying about it and focus on continuing the great job they're already doing!
At least most of us can. But some of us are going to need to keep track of something to call credits, whether because of state requirements, to satisfy family, or to satisfy our own consciences.
There is no reason hsers have to rack up enough points to add up to a credit in a subject in one year. In other words, over the course of four years, the foreign language studied each year will add up to at least one credit (probably more). Same for other subjects - over the course of four years, plenty of credits will accumulate. The reason schools do one full credit at once (or sometimes half a credit) is because it's just too unwieldy to work out 1/10 of a credit here, 1/10 there, 1/25 there, for several hundred students. Mass production on a conveyor-belt style course load is what works for larger numbers of students using the same teachers and classrooms. For families, we don't have to do it this way.
Q. I don't like the idea of credit hours and Carnegie Units. I find it confusing and I don't have time to do it and it's just too fiddling for my style of homeschooling.
A. We don't have to do all these hours and minute based credits. I'm just sharing the info for those who need it (depending on state) and to take some of the mystery out of how public high school does it. There are also ways besides time spent to determine credit. Profiency-based is one way. For example, I gave my two teens credit in typing when they reached a certain speed (45 wpm). When the oldest reached 60 wpm she got a second credit. I didn't care whether she'd actually spent "x" amount of hours on the topic. She just had to have reached a certain proficiency level. I'm not sure how much typing would be a Charlotte Mason skill, we wanted the girls to learn it and they needed the skills for their business, so we added it. Incidentally, I picked those numbers based on my mother's advice. She is a former typing teacher, and I asked her what she would consider good first year typing skills. She said kids who typed 45wpm at the end of the first year each received an A- so that's what we chose.
One could do the same thing with language - when you can complete these tasks, you get a credit in language. Home economics, handwork, even art, could work the same way. I'm sure other classes could, too, but these come to mind as fairly easy ones to figure out this way.
Q. So we could determine credits by 'hours' spent or by proficiency at a skill. Anything else?
A. Content-based is another method- say, when you have read and narrated these books, produced a good book century book, and completed x amount of exams that is worth one credit in history. When you have read and narrated these books, charted some maps, located x amount of places and done x amount of writing, that is one credit in geography (or social studies). When you have kept a nature notebook, done these science experiments, read these books, that is one credit in ecology or biology. When you have washed and waxed my car, I release your transcript.
Other people count up credit hours based on actual pages read, since reading speeds can vary. But so can quality of books read - public schools run into this when a student gets one credit for Shakespeare and one credit for typing - are the two credits really 'equal?' Some schools take that into account and give more points for Advanced Placement classes (which are distressingly twaddly, by the way), some don't. In other words,(and this is very, very important), there is no one, true way to figure this out. So homeschoolers have less to worry about than we think.
Q. Okay, so it doesn't matter how we figure out 'credits,' and for some of us, whether or not we assign them isn't going to be an issue. But aren't there state requirements for content? We can't just do four years of car waxing and offer a diploma, right?
A. Actually, we could. It wouldn't be right, it wouldn't be Charlotte Mason, it wouldn't be doing our children any favors, it would not be proper use of our parental authority. But we could. The states do have some requirements, but these are primarily for the public schools. Most of us do not have to meet them, and I doubt that any of us have to meet them exactly the same way the public schools do.
Q. But knowing what they are might help us build our own framework, wouldn't it?
A. I agree. Most homeschoolers won't have to follow the content requirements for public schools, but it is useful to know what they are. Various homeschooling high school books give this information. Cathy Duffy looked over various high school graduation requirements, as well as college entry requirements, and came up with a suggested list of courses that college bound students would take in high School (note, these are not required to graduate, they are just recommended for the college bound student):
Bible - 4 years suggested
English - 4 years recommended, emphasize writing skills (see a discussion about AO and high school English here)
Math - Algebra & Geometry, with an advanced math class in 12th grade recommended
Social Sciences (U.S. History, World History, American Government, and Economics) - Only 3 years: full year each for U.S. and World History and a one year combo of government and economics.
Science - She didn't list years here, but says biology and chemistry usually required and should include lab work
Foreign Language - 2 years of the same language
Driver's Ed - 1 year recommended
Physical Ed. - 2 years
Fine Arts - 1 year, although California allows the substitution of Foreign Language for Fine Arts
Electives - Typing or computers, or home ec, etc.; computer class highly recommended. Typing skills almost a necessity
Q. Okay, that's one person's list. Any others?
Diane McAlister and Candace Oneshak's book Homeschooling the High Schooler has a very similar list. The only differences between the two courses of study are that they would require 3-4 years of science rather than 2, and 2 years of Occupational Education. They make no mention of Driver's Ed for college bound students.
California has done something wacky with their credits and they now count them differently and require some hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of credits to graduate. But credits in Ca are no longer, apparently, a reflection of any kind of clock hour, whether the 60 or 45 minute kind.
If the unit needed to call a class a credit is anywhere near comparable from one state to another, in Oregon, you have to have 1200 more hours to graduate than you do in California. Regardless of differences in credit accounting, in Indiana, Kansas or New Hampshire you can graduate without ever studying world history or geography. In Washington or Kansas you don't have to know anything about economics and in Texas, Kansas and Indiana there are no fine arts requirements. There are other particulars specific to each state, and a lot of nonsense stuff. In one state, a seventh or eighth grader can fulfill the high school requirement in State History and Government with a jr. High class - but only if he doesn't get to apply those credits toward the minimum numbe r needed for graduation. Basically, he's just freeing up some elective space if he takes the course early. So the same course is counted toward graduation if taken in grade 9, but not in grade 8. But they are admitting it's comparable, because taking it in grade 8 does fulfill the same requirement you'd fulfill if you waited 'til grade 9. I ran into some of this nonsense myself when we moved Arizona to California at the start of my Senior Year. In Arizona, Government and Economics was required to graduate, and I took it in a summer school class so I could graduate early. I had to do that, because I had more than enough credits to graduate, including honors English courses, one couldn't graduate without that particular course - and one could not take that particular course until grade 12. I only needed to take three classes the first semester of my Senior year, and I could graduate midterm.
But we moved. California required a class called "Civics and Free Enterprise," and they used precisely the same textbook I had used - but they wouldn't honor my credits or permit me to graduate midterm. In fact, CA wanted me to take a full load of classes all year, plus one extra, in order to graduate - and they were Mickey Mouse classes - p.e., teachers' aide, photography - there wasn't a single substantive course I was lacking, just electives.I solved the problem by taking a full load for one semester, transferring my credits back to AZ, and returning to AZ for the graduation ceremony at the end of the year. Meanwhile, my husband, a native of CA, flunked out of everything but drama and speech, dropped out at the beginning of his jr year, 18 mos later returned to night school where he took one course each of typing, English, history, and a fourth negligible class - and he got a diploma without any hassle. Same town, different high school. That little jaunt into biography is simply to illustrate that credits and diplomas are simply not as set in stone as many of us believe, not even for public school students. There's nothing superior or particularly scientific about the way the system works. It's not mainly even designed to educate, but rather seems calculated to simply warehouse students as long as possible and keep the money rolling in for the school. Cynical? Yes. My husband passed his night school courses in part because he roofed a teacher's house for him (in other words, was a minor exploited for his labour by a public educator).
Q. Tell me again why we've spent all this time on it?
A. Builds character =) Seriously, I think it's a confidence booster. It's probably helpful to have some information about possible ways parents themselves can calculate credits and create a transcript.
Q. This is all very interesting, but I don't live in the U.S.A. How does it apply to me and other AO/HEO members who don't?
A. Well, as far as I can tell, it doesn't mean much for you at all. In talking with Canadian homeschoolers, it seems there is a big difference between homeschooling in Canada and in the U.S. - especially in regard to colleges and Universities. U.S. students should have no trouble getting into college with a decent reading list and a portfolio or transcript prepared from home. It's record keeping rather than course content that will be harder for some families. The Charlotte Mason content is more than adequate. Canadian colleges, I understand, are not as flexible as in the U.S., nor, perhaps, have they had enough experience with homeschooled students yet to see the benefits of accepting homeschooled students.
Not USA or Canada
Q. So what do we who live outside the U.S.A. do?
A. Umm, come up with a brief explanation of how things work in your country and a few suggestions for how AO/HEO parents can work with, around, or in spite of that system.
This is simply not an area where I have any information that would be much use. Sorry.
Taking the maximum requirements as our guide:
Bible - 4 years
English - 4 years emphasize writing skills - lots of scope for Charlotte Mason studies here (see a discussion about AO and high school English here)
Math - 3 years, probably Algebra 1 and 2 and Geometry
Social Sciences (U.S. History, World History, U.S. Government, & Economics) - No state requires more than 3, and three are only required in states where economics is a separate semester long course. A solid Charlotte Mason program could easily do 4 years worth of work in these topics.
Science - The most required by any of the high schools is 3 years, and that's when lab work is counted separately. Again, with astronomy, nature study, nature notebooks, and other topics covered in a Charlotte Mason education, I think we'll have no problem beating this requirement.
Foreign Language - 2 years of the same language - and Latin does count. (Method: time and materials covered OR by fluency)
Physical Ed - 2 years are required in one state, only 1 in others. Health is generally part of the PE requirements. Dance, nature walks, games such as kickball, family softball games - all these are grist to the homeschoolers' mill and can count toward P.E. So, I think, would things like hygeine and parts of Charlotte Mason's book Ourselves (abstinence based sex-education =) )
Fine Arts - Only one state listed requires fine arts. With the Charlotte Mason emphasis on art, Shakespeare plays, and music, we can easily top this requirement
Electives - Handwork, hobbies, extra literature, more foreign language, keyboard skills, etc.
Colleen in GA writes: OK, AO/HEO moms, it is confession time. I did not follow a Charlotte Mason based curriculum for our 14yos (9th grade) but enrolled him in Oak Meadow's online scholl for 4 subjects for this past year. But what I wanted to share after Wendi's dissertation on credits, calculating credits and the like (what a bounty of information!!) is how Oak Meadow, which is trying to spearhead a virtual classroom situation, accounts for high school credits and what they expect for a high school college bound "diploma." To receive a high school diploma from Oak Meadow a student must complete a minimum of 20 units. (1 unit = 2 semesters)
English - 4 units (English 9, English 10, American Lit, World Lit)
Math - 2 units
Social Studies - 3 units (American History, World History, Government)
Science - 2 units
Fine Arts - 1 unit (The Study of Art, Integrated Drawing, Music)
Physical Ed. - 360 hours required for graduation, but not counted toward the 20 units needed
Electives - 7.5 units
Humanities - 1/2 unit
Languages - 2 units (same language)
Computer science recommended
OnLine School Credit for Electives, Jobs and Volunteering
Now here's the interesting part; to receive credits for these electives you may do one of the following also:
Take a class in your local area such as photography, pottery, theater etc.. as long as the class meets regularly (at least once a week) Classes must meet a minimum of 18 hours. Credit will be based on the number of hours of instruction per week. You will receive 1/10 (one tenth) of a credit for each 18 hours (or basically a 180 hours of instruction equals 1 full credit hour here).
To receive credit for a part-time job: You must work a total of at least 40 hours to be eligible for credit. You receive 1/10 credit for every 40 hours of work experience up to a maximum of 5 credits.(it does not say paid work here, so I would definitely give credit for a volunteer position also!)
This is just another example to give credits etc. from an alternative school.
Q. What about college preparedness and SAT/ACT college entrance testing? Do the families using AO/HEO all the way through use grading/testing, etc?
This is Carol H.'s response to a question posted to the HEO email list:
The SAT/ACT test are administered by the College Board and as such they are designed to test general knowledge. High schools follow a typical course of study that prepares students to take and pass this test. Homeschoolers also follow a similar course of study. The only difference is that homeschoolers have more choices as to the actual curriculum they use (biology is biology, for example, but the actual course material and the presentation of the information can be vastly different based on publisher's philosophy and intent).
A typical course of study including 4 years of English, 4 years of math, 4 years of science, 3 years of history, etc. will ensure the student is well prepared, not only to score well on this test, but also to meet any requirements for college/university admissions. AO/HEO offers plenty of instruction in all key subject areas.
Most 11-12th grade public school and homeschoolers students will purchase a test prep book and will spend time working through it, taking the practice tests, etc. so that they are comfortable taking the test. Many competitive colleges want to see a high score on these tests so students are encouraged to take the test more than once.
To answer questions from your family, I would just say: the curriculum we are using (AO/HEO) is an honors/college preparatory program and is designed to prepare students to not only pass these tests but to score well on them. In addition, the course work is college level so students will be able to take AP tests and possibly receive college credit for their high school course work.
If they poke more, just let them know that "most competitive colleges expect students to take four years of literature/composition based courses in high school." AO/HEO is a literature-based curriculum and is the kind of curriculum competitive colleges want to see listed on a transcript (as compared to traditional textbooks, which is least favored).
~Carol H. :o)
Having just finished the process of documenting my son's high school education for the college application process, I thought you all might like to know that there is now a homeschooling supplement to the common application that many colleges use. It is very easy to fill out the college application online and to download the homeschool supplement. The supplement has to be mailed to each school. The transcript they require is quite simple. I found the question asking me why I chose to homeschool this particular child and what is my philosophy of homeschooling that gave me 50 words worth of space in which to answer to be the most challenging. Talk about the quick version! You can download a copy to prepare here.
www.collegeboard.org also has an academic tracker feature that lets you compare your high school plan to specific college requirements and to successful applicants. This is a free service.
One school wanted evidence of the kinds of labs he did before they would give credit for his science classes. NCAA eligibility is a bit harder requiring a list of all books used including publisher and publication date. Only difficult because we didn't write down everything he read for his study of film history. HEO has the booklists, just have to remember which edition for the ones from the library. All my younger kids now keep a running book list.
This was much easier than when my oldest applied 7 years ago. Then applying required conversations with each college as there were no policies in place and while they had learned to appreciate their homeschooled applicants, there were no standard procedures. Her applications looked more like a portfolio that included book lists. Most of my son's applications just needed a simple transcript. He was accepted to 9 universities, 6 honors colleges and received Presidential/Academic awards from 5 schools. They really want my AO educated son. He gets personal letters and emails daily from the schools. Friday we leave on a 10 day, 9 college tour to help him get the information he needs to make his choice.
So if you are fearfully considering homeschooling through high school, take heart. Our way of educating our kids turns out the kind of people universities actively recruit and the process is getting simpler all the time. You have time to figure it out. Get started with the year and then when you find your rhythm and your student has identified some goals, then you will find the way to proceed.
My son recommends that you take the PSAT as a sophomore and the SAT as a junior as well as choosing your prospective schools by the summer before your senior year. He waited until the last possible minute and besides the stress he faced as a result, he also lost out on some scholarships that were only available to early applicants . He has been telling me to start putting the pressure on his year 10 sister; he even bought her a SAT prep computer program yesterday.
One last comment: I have observed that we parents stress much more the first time through any path. Learning to diaper babies was hard, keeping toddlers safe was hard, teaching a child to read was hard . . .the FIRST time. By the time we got to child #5 none of those things required much thought, much less stress or fear. I think the same is true for school. First grade is easy when you are working on third grade. Have you ever found yourself wondering why parents of first graders are so worried? High school works the same way. So while looking ahead with fear and trepidation remember that some day you will be the person looking back with confidence and enjoy the journey.
For further reading: Carol H. wrote a post in response to a mom asking about whether starting her high schooler in AO's Year 4 would negatively affect his college transcripts. You can read that here.
Katie Barr wrote an article about "Educating Our Kids for Life;" She writes, "My husband and I have a list of tests for our kids to take before college. We want their transcripts to 'speak the language' of university officials. We need them to get scholarships. But how much time should we allow for these pursuits? Time is finite, a truth I rediscover with startling frequency. The more we spend measuring their progress, the less we have to delve into books and nature and poetry. I do not mean analyzing and classifying. I mean reading, looking, absorbing. We have to make time to feed our souls. Students need experiences that both instruct and inspire. They need to think about what makes a person noble and how to sense things that are bigger than we can comprehend. They need time to discuss ideas, taking in the good and discarding the bad. This becomes more important as a student gets older, not less. . ." You can download the complete article (Word doc) here.
1. I don't exactly have a homeschooled grad yet, as my eldest is entering 12th grade this Fall, but he's close and we have always done mainly CM education. I've found that since he's so auditory and dislikes writing so very much, CM's method of narration has been a blessing. He is now quite articulate and people he works for often say they appreciate that he is able to talk to adults in a sensible way about real life things.
We have also found that having a shorter school day with much real life activity in the afternoons, including handiwork has been worthwhile. In my heart of hearts it never made sense to me to keep children of any age cooped up all day doing book work when much of adult life is hands on. So our son spent much of his growing up time helping with farm work, "puttering" and "tinkering" in the shop, and also dreaming over machinery catalogues. CM education allowed enough time for this sort of thing and usually kept me from feeling guilty that he wasn't doing enough "school work". Actually, it helped me realize that this sort of thing IS school work.
Just some observations from someone who's almost there.
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2. I haven't used AO/HEO the whole time with any of my children, mostly because it wasn't around for our oldest, but have used CM most of their lives. I've always put together my own CM style curriculum, but we have taken advantage of the AO/HEO booklists:)
We started using CM's methods when my oldest (a girl, 25) was in the first grade around, 1990. My two boys (17 & 20) have always known a CM education.
My daughter graduated in 2002. We didn't always do everything as closely to CM's philosophies as I would have liked, mostly because there was no one else I knew using them to bounce ideas off of. She did very well once in college. She told me college was easy compared to all the work she was used to doing in high school. LOL She also said that other kids in her college classes had very limited vocabularies. She has since graduated with an Associate's in Visual Communications, is married and expecting her first child. (our first grandchild :)
My second, oldest son, is finishing up his second year of college. He is getting a CAD certificate (Computer Aided Drafting) and will pursue an Engineering degree.
Neither one of my children has had any trouble adjusting to college. They both made good grades in their classes. My son has been on the President's list and invited to join the Honor Society.
I've heard many times over our years of homeschooling, that CM is great for young children or children who love to read or girls (because boys either don't like to read or are more science math oriented. Remember son #1 above?)
I have one other son left who will graduate this year. I can't count our adopted daughter in the CM educated group because she's only been with us a year and she's just learning English, though she does love to be read to. :)
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3. When my son was in 9th grade, only year 7 of AmblesideOnline was complete, so we used some of AO and our own picks - which many later ended up on the list - like Truthquest, Apologia biology, etc.
He was easily accepted by the college that he chose - Greenville College in Greenville, IL. Based on his grades, ACT score and recommendations from others, he was able to compete for scholarships and received a Dean's scholarship.
He has 3 years completed at the school, but this year has decided to finish his classes at a local four-year, state university in order to receive a major in computer science. His major was digital media and Greenville quit offerring the computer science several years ago, so he was not able to major in it. He will still be able to transfer his classes over and graduate from Greenville.
blessings, Lynn D.
Lynn's update - Sept 2009
My son came home and started attending a local university last Fall. Since he switched his major, he had about two years of courses in computer science that he needed. He's just begun his second year, but has also been working about 30 hours a week and taking just three or four classes at a time, so he should graduate in Spring of 2011.
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4. My oldest just finished her freshman year at Southern Virginia University. The process was easy for us as our local high school issued her diploma but the college did also accept all her homeschool credits. A lot of colleges were asking for portfolios, reading lists and transcripts, as well as what curriculum you used. The college as well as the high school were impressed that my daughter had read Uncle Remus at an early age (we were using Robinson and AO). Most colleges are having the kids take a math and english placement exam as schools differ across the country. My daughter tested out of the regular freshman english class and the President of the college gave her a Presidential Scholarship for next year. They have also planned a homeschool scholarship for new kids coming in. If your child receives a good score on the ACT or SAT you should have no worries. My daughter froze and only got a 16.
Most colleges have someone who works directly with homeschooled families. You need to find out who that is and what they want. Each college is asking for different things.
Just a note - if you finish AO Year 10 and you give the information to the college, they are usually very impressed with the AO curriculum.
with one down and 4 to go.
Mary's update - Sep 2009
My daughter just started her junior year at SVU. She is doing great and a lot of the works they have done she had already read while homeschooling. She even got a school scholarship. It was a little difficult for her with block classes but only because we modified AO so she read everyday and we added a lot.
Also we are not homeschooling this year. I had to go look for a job in another state and the kids stayed here so we put them in PS. They have done very well. My little guy in 3rd grade is giving his teacher a run for her money. He asks lots of questions about the meaning of what they read and even told the teacher he didn't like "twaddle" when she asked if he liked the book she read. She had no idea what twaddle was.
Anyhow I am very glad we used AO and wish we could continue completely but with everything going on we are just using it as enrichment in the evenings. I think that my kids, even though two are special needs, miss it too. I know my 8yr old does because he asked if he could bring good books for the teacher to read.
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5. My daughter used CM methods and AO for her last 2 years in homeschool before going on to college. She is now in her 3rd year studying graphic art and design with a focus in web design and technology. She has made the dean's list with honors every semester.
Faithe's update - Sept 2009
My oldest daughter graduated from college in 2008 with her BA in Graphic Design. She graduated with a 3.9 GPA, 7th in her class of almost 800 students, Summa Cum Laude. She got married the next month LOL. She began her career while still in college, in her senior year, when she was hired by a scout who noticed her impressive portfolio online. She now helps in the design of catalogues, brochures and ad campaigns for a popular home decorating company. She has also been free-lancing and her own design company has begun to really take off. You can see a sampling of her professional her work at www.silverhanddesign.com.
My next 2 children, who also used parts of AO through their High School careers, of course tweaked to their own learning strengths and weaknesses, are now graduated. Daughter number 2 is graduating from the Community college this semester . . . and she is also carrying a 3.9 GPA, has earned a place on the president's list all 4 semesters and is going on to become a Physical Therapist. My son began CC this fall to begin his study in Electrical Engineering and Alternative Energy and is making the transition to college work rather easily. I expect he will do as well as his sister's have.
I love AO and HEO. I do not use them as written because I am a perpetual tweaker, and a compulsive book lover. I always find some book I need to fit in or I feel is a better fit to my child. However, my starting point is ALWAYS AmblesideOnline, and I am always thrilled when I check in to see changes and the AO advisory has replaced a book with one I had replaced in my own schoolroom.
I think you ladies are awesome and I would be happy to do whatever I can to help others implement a CM education into their own homeschools.
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6. I sort of consider my daughter the 'guinea pig' for modern day CM education - in that this is the only way she has been educated her entire life. That's not to say I've always done it perfectly by any means - and that every element of a CM education has always been present. I've learned along the way, too :-)
But she is now 17 and in her junior year (turned 17 in January). She will graduate in '04 and go on to college (right now she wants to attend Philadelphia Biblical University). She should take her SAT's soon, I believe this spring as a matter of fact. I promise to keep you all posted on her progress moving toward college :-)
But we took her high school plans and divided them up into a workable transcript-layout (IOW, in some things like French or Bible, we spread things out but we put them all together for credits-sake) and it's up on my website - you can go to http://www.libertyandlily.net and click on "High School" - and you'll see all four years there. I think you'll see that it's a meaningful and valid high school plan.
Love in Him,
Donna-Jean's update - Sept 2004
Our oldest graduated in June, and is now a freshman at The King's College, located in the Empire State Building in New York City. It's a Christian liberal arts college that focuses especially on developing leaders. Bethany is living in the city in their dorm apartments, and loving it. Her freshman week of 'orientation' coincided with the Republican National Convention, and she had some exciting times, including being able to attend the last night when the President spoke!
Her first couple of weeks of college have been interesting - from the perspective of a homeschool mom who tried her best to teach all those years from a Charlotte Mason focus :-) It's been reassuring to hear that some of the material in her college courses is familiar to her :-)
I hope to get back to our website soon, it needs much updating - and I will write up how we adjusted some of the things there and how we put it all on a transcript - just to share with others who are interested in seeing how one family put a CM-styled high school education into a form colleges can look at. (Remember, I wrote that before AO had the HEO years up, although I was inspired by the plan that AO presented and followed some of that as best I could.)
Love in Him,
Donna-Jean's update, Sept 2009
Bethany graduated in 2004, and went that fall to college in New York City. She spent a successful semester at The King's College in the Empire State Building, and her AO studies were a strong foundation for the broad and varied learning and experiences she had there.
The college was exciting, but didn't offer the program Bethany wanted. So she then joined the work force, and with her leadership skills she became a bookstore and cafe manager. During this time, she married a Christian young man named Nate in 2006. Nate was also homeschooled. We are so thankful to God for their God-based marriage.
Bethany has gone back to school to become a nurse, something she had wanted to do when she was a little girl. She enjoys her classes, and has made the Dean's List each semester. She also looks forward to being a mom one day, and we wait on the Lord for that.
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7. I have one graduating college and one in the middle of college and they were homeschooled all the way to college. I kept records of the work they did and books they read. Then I filled them into the typical subject areas. AO makes that job easy. Although I wasn't doing AO for the first two, I was doing CM and they were accepted to every college they applied to. (Christian colleges and a community college that feeds into U of Chicago and Northwestern) By the time your sons are in college, colleges will probably be recruiting homeschooled students if they aren't already.
A good computer program for record keeping can be extremely helpful. I haven't needed to use mine much except for our high school students. It depends on your state as to the usefulness of them for younger grades. We are in IL and we don't have to do any reporting.
When the time comes, if you can look up a local high school catalog online or get one from the school, it helps in looking at the requirements for college bound children. (An aside, if they say the public school students are doing physics in jr high school, it is probably comparable to Apologia's Physical Science course. Sometimes, they kind of throw you with their descriptions and make it sound like they are more advanced. Not always true.)
Some colleges have their requirements for entrants on their websites also. Those requirements are the most important.
Remember to give your boys opportunities to MAKE real things. Useful things. Repair things. Work on landscaping. Real jobs as they get older. So important. They'll learn sooo much.
So, the shortened version, AO will be fine through high school. They will be well prepared. : )
Mary's update - Sept 2009
Our daughter got her BA in English Literature and graduated Magna Cum Laude from Trinity University this past spring. She went through school with academic and athletic scholarships. She had also been accepted at Wheaton and Moody.
Our son is still in school and is a Communications major with a media emphasis and he is working 19 hours a week. He had been accepted at Gordon and Biola.
Another daughter is a senior in high school this year and I feel confident that HEO is good preparation for college. Her father and I are enjoying some of her books along with her.
We also have more children following in the CM footsteps with AO and HEO. They're learning a lot. The other day our six year old caught a butterfly and wanted to know if it was a male or a female. Her sister remembered reading about the butterfly last year in The Storybook of Science so she found the book and looked up the information for her sister. So sweet!
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8. My son is graduating this week from our homeschool. He used AO for his last three years of CM style education. He applied to 11 colleges, got into 10 of the 11 (he needed to take an SAT !! to be accepted there and chose not to take it). He was offered placement in the honors colleges and academic scholarships at EVERY school. They ranged from prestigious private schools to large research institutions. He applied to a range of schools, large and small, public and private. We thought it would be harder to get in with his homeschool life than it was. We offered up a list of courses he had studied and a note that we taught to mastery and so did not give grades but if we did they would be A's.
He scored well on his SAT's and wrote great essays after using the IEW college essay writing video. Admissions counselors were impressed by the breadth of his reading and study, his languages skills including Latin, and how comfortable he was in interview settings and his ability to self-evaluate and express his goals. Before I took him on his tour of colleges that had accepted him, his dad and I made a point that the goal was to find a school that was a good match for him. Every school we visited was enthusiastic about having him there. They were looking for thinkers and leaders and he is both. His choice was about atmosphere, class style and size, weather, and overall environment. He has chosen to attend Eckerd College in Florida where he will play varsity tennis and study Marine Biology. Three of the schools he turned down have offered to hold him a place until 2009 if he changes his mind!
When we started with AO I wasn't sure how it would translate to higher education, but decided it was so obviously right for my children, rigorous and thoughtful and working with the assumption that they want to learn and contribute both that we accepted the risk that our kids might also have a non-traditional higher education process as well. It turns out we had nothing to worry about. His non-traditional education made him a more attractive candidate to the schools to which he applied. Having graduated 2 from homeschooling, I have no l fear for my remaining three.
Cindee's update - Sept 2009
My son got called up to the soccer team and played as the #2 goalie for his NCAA division 2 school, as well as on the tennis team fall term. Getting authorization from the NCAA was harder than getting into college as they required a list of all the books he had read in high school including title, author, publisher and publication date! Now I had the booklists but I didn't keep records on all of the publication dates, so it took a while to prepare that list. In the end, the rules are clear so it is not too difficult to qualify.
At college he really enjoyed his Roman History class and decided to become a classics minor. He also got an A in his first writing class. He took gender and media (watching movies sounded good to him and the class was mostly girls--double bonus), Western Heritage (the required freshman core class),a speech class and a class he really loved on the biology of the Everglades and a few more that have slipped my mind. During the winter term (January) he took a leadership seminar. He has applied to be a student leader at the same seminar for next January. He decided that he is more a naturalist than a scientist, having a lovely time tracking critters through the Everglades and photographing them with his class. He will be looking for more eco-biology and nature observation classes rather than the research lab classes. I thought this was a nice refinement to his plan and a good clarification for him to make about his own interests.
This summer he was invited, as one of six students handpicked by the professor, to spend two weeks in Southern France searching for proof of exactly where Hannibal crossed the alps and visiting ruins on the coast. He came back from that trip and changed his major to a double major in Sports Communication and classics. He spent the rest of the summer as a volunteer Tennis coach and soccer goalie coach in our hometown. He got all A's and B's in the honors program his first year even with missing 1/3 to 1/2 of the classes due to the soccer team travel schedule. He decided he did not like missing his education for sports and has adjusted his plans accordingly. (I didn't think the day would ever come that he would reverse his priorities like that!) All but one of his B's was in his first term. He still has his academic scholarship and we have no complaints about his school or how he did his first year.
He has been back at school for 2 weeks now and is loving his life. He is back with his friends, going to sporting events, playing club soccer and tennis, taking Greek mythology, Greek history, sports coaching and psychology, and a media communication class. He just wrote a proposal for a paid internship and it was accepted. He will be doing commentary for the school radio station covering their sporting events and get paid for it! He's loves sports and getting paid to watch and talk about games is pure joy to him. He's so excited.
What is clear to me is that college is a time of great exploration and growth. You question your beliefs as you brush up against others in your classes, particularly in his freshman year "Western Heritage" class which was really a world view class. You become aware of layers of meaning in literature, movies, friends' lives and your own. The richness of his AmblesideOnline curriculum allowed him to deal with all of that with a minimum of shock. He had read some of the works before with AmblesideOnline and could just review and learn from the discussion. It was easier for him than his classmates who also had to read and absorb the material for the first time in the more complicated cultural setting. He noticed and appreciated this. He came home a strong supporter of our lifestyle and spent his summer encouraging his sister to follow mom's plan in order to get ready for college.
My son grew so much from last year to this. He moved away, made new friends, dealt with sickness, pain and disappointment and came back happy, stronger, and more justified in his self confidence. He did not have any trouble transitioning to college or college level work and was fully prepared for what he encountered. He did have trouble with illness during February and March but did not let it affect his school work. His father and I feel that he is really getting the polishing of his character and knowledge that we were hoping would come from his college experience.
He has given me strict advice to make his younger siblings do even more writing. He tells me I'm being too easy on his sister who is a senior this year and that I need to up her writing workload because college is "all about the essays". His college is very heavily weighted to discussion and writing with no multiple choice tests. You really have to know what you are talking about. The small class size is an ideal format for that type of education and was one of the big draws of that particular college. The fact that he could play tennis outdoors every day and it is on the beach didn't hurt either. He tells me that he was well-prepared and did fine but that I ought to make her do more work than I gave him.
My middle dd took the SAT last spring (her first test ever) and scored well enough to have her options completely open. She is planning to study Biochemistry and Dance with the goal of becoming a veterinarian. She knows what she wants to do, but not where she wants to go just yet. This week she will be limiting her options and getting those applications in. This summer she won the Master Showman contest in 4H at our county fair and competed with her dog at the dog obedience trials at the state fair. Her goats also qualified for state fair. It has been a busy summer. Soon I will be able to report on the college application process for my third child. Only two more to go!
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9. My eldest (daughter) is in her third year of college (university) studying music (organ) and English with a double major. She used AO and has done very well . . . she was on the dean's list the first year. She celebrates the fact that she was homeschooled and often wistfully asks to be educated at home again along with her brothers as she finds her classmates uninspired and uninspiring usually, and the "feast" a little skimpy. Stick with AO . . . the water's fine!!
Laurie's update, Sept 2009
My daughter graduated with that double major and has been working fulltime for a Symphony for the last year and as an organist. She has her own apartment and car and lives a day's drive from us. She is studying for the LSAT and saving money towards law school next fall. [Laurie has since also graduated a son: "He is loving college so far. He's already class vice president . . . so obviously no wallflower!"]
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10. My oldest daughter, whom the Advisory affectionately called the "AO guinea pig," feels that her education prepared her richly and abundantly for college, marriage, and life. An AO/HEO student from 5th grade through graduation (eight years total), she was awarded a full four-year scholarship to a highly respected university based on her SAT scores and her entrance essay, which is linked below. She was admitted as an entering freshman into their Collegium V Honors program. During her sophomore year, her poetry received two awards. Now a junior, she has maintained a perfect 4.0 cumulative GPA and is working toward a Bachelor of Arts and Performance in Creative Writing. Based on commendations from her professors, the dean of her college is allowing her to take graduate level courses starting next semester for dual credit toward a master's degree. Now happily married, she is reading Charlotte Mason's series with a local study group and looking forward to using AO with her future children.
~Here is her college entrance essay:
~A glowing introduction to the Dean of her school during her freshman year -- and the humorous fallout at home afterward -- prompted this blog post:
~Finally, here is my favorite of her guest posts on my blog, written a month prior to her high school graduation. I truly love reading this:
~ Lynn Bruce
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11. My oldest son was another AO "guinea pig." During his years with AO, he learned to love books, reading, writing, playing piano, and discussing ideas. He graduated as a National Merit Scholar and was offered academic scholarships from five colleges, including two that he hadn't even applied to. He ended up going to a Christian liberal arts college close to home, is living at the dorm and is doing well enough there that he made the Dean's List. He was torn between majoring in music and majoring in English, but finally decided on English; he wants to be a writer. He is involved with another AO student from another state that he met at a CM conference; he sees these conferences as a way to get this generation of AO students excited about a CM education for their own children, the next generation of AO/CM students.
I posted about his National Merit Scholarship on our blog at the time and wrote, "Sometimes parents wonder if AmblesideOnline or a Charlotte Mason education will provide what it takes to prepare a student to get into college. Tim is a good student, self-sufficient, organized, disciplined and able to manage his time, motivated. But his only schooling since fourth grade has been AmblesideOnline (we did Sonlight for his first three years). He's had no formal creative writing, language arts, no math tutoring, no supplemental courses or projects to boost his knowledge of history or anything. So I think that a CM/AO education is enough for any student. Not that a CM education can guarantee the same results, but no education, not even a public school education (since that's the standard that homeschooling is held up to!), can make that kind of guarantee."
May 2011 Update: Oldest son is doing well going into his fourth year of college; he has made the Dean's list every semester and plans to get married in June 2012 (to another AO graduate!) Son number two, who was my "late bloomer," and didn't read fluently until age 9, wants to join the military. He took his Asvab and scored in the 95th percentile. He says that all the "hard" books from AO gave him an advantage in the reading, vocabulary and comprehension part of the test. Language arts is not his strength, but he scored very, very high on that part of the test without any extra studying or effort. This son has done AO pretty much as written since first grade. He used AO's "lite" years throughout high school. He enjoyed the history books and is interested in economics.
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12. Praise for HEO
Today, my son took the placement exams for our local community college. I was really uncertain how he would do, since we don't grade or do tests (or even AO exams). He did so well that he was placed in their Honors program, and is exempted from a required Critical Reading course. In addition, he has earned a President's Scholarship (free tuition for 4 semesters). We are praising God for His Provision of a free way to college, and are thanking Him for directing us to AO/HEO all those years ago.
~Carol H. :o)
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13. I wanted to give you all a word of encouragement. Let me start with a brief background. Our only child, a boy now 20, started home educating with a mix/match of boxed curriculum, which was all I knew at the time. We became eclectic in our approach. When he was in 8th grade, we found AmblesideOnline. It changed everything! I finally found a way to accomplish what I had dreamed of his education being.
He graduated almost 2 years ago. Until a month before graduation he wasn't sure of his path. Then he felt called to the ministry and found a college that met his entire wish list, Trinity Bible College, Ellendale, ND.
While some of the books we read engaged him, others I admit he endured. Some he knew he wanted to keep, while others he couldn't wait to get out the door. Well today was the second or third time he told me how glad he is that I made he read AO/HEO books, how he wished he had engaged more of them, and how he wished I wouldn't have let him off some of the reading. Oh, yea then there are some of those books he wants back now.
Take heart, stay your course, it will return great dividends.
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14. How did this happen? My little girl just got off the phone with her freshman advisor. She is all signed up for her fall classes. Yes, that's right, she's going off to college in September. Oh my. Oh my, oh my. (must breathe) While she was on the phone, a professor looked over the advisor's shoulder and said "wow, her ACT score is really high". Thank you AmblesideOnline! But really, how did this get here so fast?
(When asked onlist, "Did you follow AO to a 't'? I'd love to hear any advice you have for those of us with younger children," MaryEllen responsed with the following post:)
We didn't homeschool until she was in 5th grade, and didn't find AO until the summer before 9th grade. She has done HEO yrs 7, 9, 10 and 11, pretty much as written. She has always been a strong reader and she loved, loved, loved all the book selections. When she took the ACT she got the highest score on the English portion that you can possibly get. She will be majoring in English at a private liberal arts University.
My advice? Trust the method. Whenever doubt creeps in (as in, 'this doesn't look like what school should look like') make it go away. Trust the method, don't mess with the booklist and schedule, don't speed up, don't double up. Our best years have been when we stuck to the schedule as written. Siblings don't need to be studying the same time periods in history, they will still play together and talk to each other about stuff. Find the best level for each child and stick with it and when they are done move on to the next year. Stop second guessing yourself. Enjoy the books. Enjoy the art. Enjoy the music. Don't "study" an artist, enjoy their work. Don't analyze literary themes in a book, read it. Enjoy it. Identify with the characters, dream about living in their world. Don't study "history dates" study historical figures. Read the biographies. Find heroes. My daughter thinks John Quincy Adams is cool.
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Thanks to Janet Hellerman and the members of the AO/HEO planning list for their help in compiling, editing and proofreading this page.
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