AmblesideOnline: Plutarch's Life of Alcibiades

Thomas North's Text

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Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 12

Alcibiades (c. 450-404 B.C.)

Reading for Lesson One

Part One

Alcibiades, as it is supposed, was anciently descended of Eurysaces, the son of Ajax, by his father's side; and by his mother's side, from Alcmaeon. Dinomache, his mother, was the daughter of Megacles. His father, Cleinias, having armed and set forth a galley at his own costs and charges, did win great honour in the battle by sea that was fought at Artemisium; and he was slain afterwards in another battle fought at Coronea, against the Boeotians.

Pericles and Ariphron, the sons of Xanthippus and closely related to him, became the guardians of Alcibiades.

[Plutarch points out that because of Alcibiades' fame via his friendship with Socrates, we know not only the name of his mother but even that of his Lacedaemonian nursemaid, Amycla, and his teacher-attendant, Zopyrus.]

Now for Alcibiades' beauty, it makes no matter if we speak not of it; only that it bloomed with him in all the ages of his life, in his infancy, in his youth, and in his manhood; and, in the peculiar character becoming to each of these periods, gave him, in every one of them, a grace and a charm. What Euripides says, that--

is by no means universally true. But it happened so with Alcibiades, amongst few others, by reason of his happy constitution and natural vigour of body. It is said that his lisping, when he spoke, became him well, and gave a grace and persuasiveness to his rapid speech.

[omission for length]

Part Two

His conduct displayed many great inconsistencies and variations, not unnaturally, in accordance with the many and wonderful vicissitudes of his fortunes; but among the many strong passions of his real character, the one most prevailing of all was his ambition and desire of superiority: as appeareth by certain of his deeds, and notable sayings in his youth. One day wrestling with a companion of his, that handled him hardly, and thereby was likely to have given him the fall: he got his fellow's arm in his mouth, and bit so hard as he would have bitten it off. The other, feeling him bite so hard, let go his hold straight, and said unto him: "Alcibiades, thou bitest like a woman!" "No, that I do not," quoth he, "but like a lion."

Another time being but a little boy, he played at dice in the midst of the street with his companions; and when his turn came about to throw, there came a cart laden, by chance, that way. Alcibiades prayed the carter to stay a while, until he had played out his game, because the dice were set right in the highway where the cart should pass over. The carter was a stubborn knave, and would not stay for any request the boy could make, but drove his horse on still, insomuch as other boys gave back to let him go on: but Alcibiades fell flat to the ground before the cart, and bade the carter drive over if he dared. This so startled the man that he put back his horses; while all that saw it were terrified, and, crying out, they ran to assist Alcibiades.

Afterwards when he was put to school to learn, he was very obedient to all his masters that taught him anything, but refused to learn upon the flute, as a sordid thing, and not becoming a free citizen; saying that to play on the lute or the harp does not in any way disfigure a man's body or face, but one is hardly to be known by the most intimate friends when playing on the flute. Besides, one who plays on the harp may speak or sing at the same time; but the use of the flute stops the mouth, intercepts the voice, and prevents all articulation.

"Therefore," said he, "let the children of the Thebans play on the flute, that cannot tell how to speak: as for us Athenians, we have (as our forefathers tell us) for protectors and patrons of our country, the goddess Pallas, and the god Apollo: of the which the one in old time (as it is said) broke the flute, and the other stripped the flute-player of his skin." Thus Alcibiades alleging these reasons, partly in sport, and partly in good earnest, did not only himself refuse to learn to play on the flute, but he turned his companions' minds also quite from it. For these words of Alcibiades ran from boy to boy incontinently: that Alcibiades had reason to despise playing of the flute, and that he mocked all those that learned to play of it. So afterwards, it fell out at Athens, that teaching to play of the flute was put out of the number of honest and liberal exercises; and the flute itself was thought a vile instrument, and of no reputation.

[omission for content]

Reading for Lesson Two

Part One

Now straight there were many great and rich men that made much of Alcibiades, and were glad to get his goodwill. But the affection which Socrates entertained for him is a great evidence of the natural noble qualities and good disposition of the boy; which Socrates, indeed, detected both in and under his personal beauty; and, hearing that his wealth and station, and the great number both of strangers and Athenians who flattered and caressed him, might at last corrupt him, resolved, if possible, to interpose, and preserve so hopeful a plant from perishing in the flower, before its fruit came to perfection.

For never did Fortune surround and enclose a man with so many of those things which we vulgarly call "goods," or so protect him from every weapon of philosophy, and fence him from every access of free and searching words, as she did Alcibiades; who, from the beginning, was shut up as it were in the company of those who feasted him with all pleasures, such as might well unnerve him, and indispose him to listen to any real advisor or instructor. Yet such was the happiness of his genius that he discerned Socrates from the rest, and went to him, refusing the company of all his rich friends and their flatteries, and fell in a kind of familiar friendship with Socrates. And Alcibiades, finding himself with one who sought to lay open to him the deficiencies of his mind, and repress his vain and foolish arrogance--

He esteemed these endeavours of Socrates most truly a means which the gods made use of for the care and preservation of youth; and began to think meanly of himself and to admire him; to be pleased with his kindness, and to stand in awe of his virtue; and unawares to himself, there became formed in his mind that reflex image and reciprocation of Love, or Anteros, that Plato talks of. It was a matter of general wonder, when people saw him joining Socrates in his meals and his exercises, living with him in the same tent, whilst he was reserved and rough to all others who made their addresses to him.

[omission for length and content]

Part Two

He behaved with insolence to all those who courted him, except only one stranger, who, as the story is told, having but a small estate, sold it all for about a hundred staters, which he presented to Alcibiades, and besought him to accept. Alcibiades, smiling and well pleased at the thing, invited him to supper. When supper was done, he gave him his money again, and commanded him not to fail the next morning to meet him where the farms and lands of the city are wont to be let out to those that bid most, and charged him he should outbid all. The poor man would fain have excused himself, saying that the farms were too great for him to hire: but Alcibiades threatened to whip him if he would not do it. For besides the desire he had to pleasure him, he bore a private grudge against the ordinary farmers of the city.

The next morning the stranger was ready in the marketplace, where they did cry out the letting of their farms; and he raised one to a talent more than all others did offer. The other farmers were as mad with him as they could be, so that they all did call upon him to name his sureties, supposing he could have found none. The stranger was marvellous blank thereat, and began to shrink back.

Then Alcibiades cried out aloud to the officers that sat there to take the best offers: "I will be his surety. Put me in the book, for he is a friend of mine." The farmers, hearing him say so, were at their wits' end and knew not what to do. For their way was, with the profits of the second year, to pay the rent for the year preceding; so that, not seeing any other way to extricate themselves out of the difficulty, they began to entreat the stranger, and offered him a sum of money to leave the bargain. Alcibiades would not allow him to accept of less than a talent; but when that was paid down, he commanded him to relinquish the bargain, having by this device relieved his necessity.

Part Three

Though Socrates had many and powerful rivals, yet the natural good qualities of Alcibiades gave his affection the mastery. His words overcame him so much, as to draw tears from his eyes, and to disturb his very soul. Yet sometimes he would abandon himself to flatterers, when they proposed to him varieties of pleasure, and would desert Socrates; who, then, would pursue him as if he had been a fugitive slave [omission for content].

Those who endeavoured to corrupt Alcibiades took advantage chiefly of his vanity and ambition, and did put him in the head to thrust himself into great matters betimes; making him believe that if he did but once begin to show himself to deal in matters of state, he would not only blemish and deface all other governors, but far excel Pericles in authority and power among the Greeks. For like as iron by fire is made soft, to be wrought into any form, and by cold also doth shut and harden in again: so, as often as Socrates observed Alcibiades to be puffed up with vanity and opinion of himself, he reduced and corrected him by his addresses, and made him humble and modest, by showing him in how many things he was deficient, and how very far from perfection in virtue.

Reading for Lesson Three

Part One

When he was past his childhood, he went once into a grammar school, and asked the schoolmaster for one of Homer's books. The schoolmaster answered him that he had none of them: Alcibiades swung up with his fist, and gave him a good box on the ear, and went his way. Another grammarian told him on a time he had Homer which he had "corrected." Alcibiades replied, "Why, what meanest thou to stand teaching little children the alphabet, when thou art able to correct Homer, and to teach young men, not boys?"

Another time he came and knocked at Pericles' gate, desirous to speak with him: answer was made him that Pericles was not at leisure now, for that he was busily occupied by himself, thinking on his reckonings he had to make with the Athenians. Alcibiades, as he went away, said, "It were better for him to consider how he might avoid giving up his accounts at all."

Part Two

When he was very young, he was a soldier in the expedition against Potidaea, where Socrates lodged in the same tent with him, and stood next to him in battle. Once there happened a sharp skirmish, in which they both behaved with signal bravery; but Alcibiades receiving a wound, Socrates threw himself before him to defend him, and beyond any question saved him and his arms from the enemy; and so in all justice might have challenged the prize of valour.

So the honour of this fight out of doubt, in equity and reason, was due unto Socrates: but yet the captains would fain have judged it on Alcibiades' side, because he was of a noble house. But Socrates, because he would increase his (Alcibiades') desire of honour, and would prick him forward to honest and commendable things, was the very first that witnessed Alcibiades had deserved it: and therefore prayed the captains to judge him the crown and complete armour.

Afterwards, in the Battle of Delium, the Athenians having received the overthrow, Socrates retreated with a few others afoot. Alcibiades, being a-horseback, and overtaking him, would not go from him, but kept him company, and brought him safe off, though the enemy pressed hard upon them, and cut off many. But this happened sometime after.

Part Three

[omission for content: the troubled relationship between Alcibiades and his wife Hipparete]

Alcibiades had a dog which cost him seventy minas, and it was a very large one, and very handsome. His tail, which was his principal ornament, he caused to be cut off; and his acquaintances exclaiming at him for it, and telling him that all Athens was sorry for the dog, and crying out upon him for this action, he laughed, and said, "Just what I wanted has happened then. I wished the Athenians to talk about this, that they might not say something worse of me."

The first time that Alcibiades spoke openly in the commonwealth, and began to deal in matters, was upon occasion of a largess of money which he made to the people. This (gift) was not done by design, but as he passed along he heard a shout, and inquiring the cause, they told him it was about money certain men had given to the people. Then Alcibiades went to them, and gave them money out of his own purse. The multitude thereupon applauding him, and shouting, he was so transported at it, that he forgot a quail which he had under his robe. The bird, being frighted with the noise, flew off, upon which the people made louder acclamations than before, and many of them started up to pursue the bird; but one Antiochus, a pilot, caught it and restored it to him, for which he was ever after a favourite with Alcibiades.

Part Four

He had great advantages for entering public life: his noble birth, his riches, the personal courage he had shown in divers battles, and the multitude of his friends and dependents, threw open, so to say, folding-doors for his admittance. Yet the only way he desired to win the favour of the common people was by the grace of his eloquence. That he was a master in the art of speaking, the comic poets bear him witness; and Demosthenes, the most eloquent of public speakers, in his oration against Midias, allows that Alcibiades, among other perfections, was a most accomplished orator. If, however, we give credit to Theophrastus, who of all philosophers was the most curious inquirer, and the greatest lover of history, we are to understand that Alcibiades had the highest capacity for inventing, for discerning what was the right thing to be said for any purpose, and on any occasion; but aiming not only at saying what was required, but also at saying it well; in respect, that is, of words and phrases; when these did not readily occur, he would often pause in the middle of his discourse for want of the apt word, and would be silent and stop till he could recollect himself, and had considered what to say.

[omission for length]

Howbeit the good affection divers cities did bear him, contending which should gratify him best, did much increase his fame and honour. For the Ephesians did set up a tent for him, very sumptuously and richly furnished. The city of Chios furnished him with provender for his horses, and with great numbers of beasts for sacrifice; and those of Lesbos sent him wine and other provisions for the many great entertainments which he made.

Yet in the midst of all this he escaped not without censure, occasioned either by the ill-nature of his enemies or by his own misconduct. For it is said that one Diomedes, an Athenian, a worthy man and a friend to Alcibiades, passionately desiring to obtain the victory at the Olympic games, and having heard much of a chariot which belonged to the state at Argos, where he knew that Alcibiades had great power and many friends, prevailed with him to undertake to buy the chariot. Alcibiades did indeed buy it, but then claimed it for his own, leaving Diomedes to rage at him, and to call upon the gods and men to bear witness to the injustice.

[omission for length]

As soon as Alcibiades began to intermeddle in the government, which was when he was very young, he quickly lessened the credit of all who aspired to the confidence of the people, except Phaeax the son of Erasistratus, and Nicias the son of Niceratus, who alone could contest it with him. Of these two, Nicias was a man grown, and was esteemed their first general. Phaeax was but a rising statesman like Alcibiades; he was descended from noble ancestors, but was his inferior, as in many other things, so, principally, in eloquence. He could more properly talk and discourse among his friends privately than he had any good grace to open a matter openly before the people. For he had, as Eupolis sayeth:

There is a certain oration extant in writing, against Alcibiades, by Phaeax: in which, amongst other things, it is said that Alcibiades made daily use at his table of many gold and silver vessels, which belonged to the commonwealth, as if they had been his own.

Reading for Lesson Four

Part One

There was a certain Hyperbolos, of the township of Perithoedae, whom Thucydides also speaks of as a man of bad character; a general butt for the mockery of all the comic writers of the time, but quite unconcerned at the worst things they could say; and, being careless of glory, also insensible of shame; a temper which some call boldness and courage, whereas it is indeed impudence and recklessness. He was liked by nobody; yet if the common people had any grudge to any nobleman or magistrate, whom they would any way accuse, Hyperbolos' wicked tongue was their instrument to utter their spite.

At this time, the people, by his persuasions, were ready to proceed to pronounce the sentence of ten years' banishment called ostracism. The manner and custom of this kind of banishment was for a time to banish out of their city such a one as seemed to have to great authority and credit in the city; and that was rather to satisfy their envy than to remedy their fear. And because it was obvious it would fall out to one of the three orators to be banished (to wit, Alcibiades, Nicias, or Phaeax): Alcibiades found means to join all their three factions in one, becoming friends one to another; and having conferred with Nicias about it, he made Hyperbolos himself to be banished, who was the chief instrument to prepare the way of their banishment. Howbeit others say, he spoke not with Nicias about it, but with Phaeax, and joining his part with Phaeax, he caused Hyperbolos to be banished, who feared nothing less: for it was never seen before, that a man of mean countenance, and of small authority, was given this banishment.

[omission for length]

Part Two

Alcibiades was not less disturbed at the distinctions which Nicias gained amongst the enemies of Athens, than at the honours which the Athenians themselves paid to him.For his house was the common inn for all Lacedaemonians when they came to Athens; moreover he had very well entertained the Lacedaemonian prisoners that were taken at Pylos. And afterwards when peace was concluded between Lacedaemon and Athens, and their prisoners redelivered home again by Nicias' means only: they loved him more than ever they did before. This was blown abroad through Greece, that the war was begun by Pericles, and that Nicias made an end of it, and the peace was generally called the "Peace of Nicias."

But Alcibiades stomaching this, and envying Nicias' glory, determined to break the peace whatsoever came of it. Wherefore to compass this matter, knowing first of all that the Argives had no liking of the Lacedaemonians, but were their mortal enemies, and that they did but seek matter to fall out with them: he secretly put them in hope of peace and league with the Athenians. Moreover he did persuade them to it, both by letters and word of mouth, speaking with their magistrates, and such as had greatest authority and credit amongst the people: declaring unto them that they should not fear the Lacedaemonians, nor yield to them at all, but to stick to the Athenians, who would soon repent them of the peace they had made, and break it with them.

Afterwards when the Lacedaemonians had made league with the Boeotians, and had redelivered Panactum to the Athenians, all defaced and spoiled, contrary to the league: Alcibiades, perceiving how the people were much offended thereat, laid hold of that opportunity to exasperate them more highly. He exclaimed fiercely against Nicias, and accused him of many things, which seemed probable enough: as that, when he was general, he made no attempt himself to capture his enemies that were shut up in the isle of Sphacteria, but, when they were afterwards made prisoners by others, he procured their release and sent them back to the Lacedaemonians, only to get favour with them. Also, that he would not make use of his credit with them to prevent their entering into this confederacy with the Boeotians and Corinthians, and yet, on the other side, that he sought to stand in the way of those Greeks who were inclined to make an alliance and friendship with Athens, if the Lacedaemonians did not like it.

Part Three

Now as Nicias was thus in disgrace with the people, for the causes above-said: in the midst of this stir, ambassadors came by chance from Lacedaemon to Athens, declaring that they had full powers to arrange all matters in dispute upon fair and equal terms. The council heard them and received them very courteously, and the people were to assemble the next day to give them audience: which, Alcibiades fearing much, he went secretly to confer with the ambassadors, and spoke with them apart in this sort:

When he had told them this tale, he gave them his faithful promise, and vowed as it were to perform his word. Hereupon Alcibiades turned the ambassadors from the trust they reposed in Nicias, and won them on his side: insomuch as they gave credit to no man but to him, wondering much at his great wisdom and ready wit, and they thought him a rare and notable man.

The next morning the people were assembled to give the ambassadors audience. They were sent for, and brought into the marketplace. There Alcibiades gently asked them the cause of their coming. They answered that they were come to treat of peace, but they had no power to determine anything. Then began Alcibiades to be angry with them, as if they had done him wrong, and not he any to them: calling them unfaithful, inconstant, and fickle men, that were come neither to do, nor say anything worth the hearing. The Senate also were offended with them, and the people rated them very roughly: whereat Nicias was so ashamed and amazed withal, that he could not tell what to say, to see so sudden a change, knowing nothing of Alcibiades' malice and subtle practice with the ambassadors.

So thus the Lacedaemonian ambassadors were utterly rejected, and Alcibiades was declared general, who presently united the Argives, the Eleans, and the people of Mantinea into a confederacy with the Athenians. Though no man did commend this practice of his, in working it after this sort: yet was it a marvellous thing of him to devise to put all Peloponnesus in arms, and to procure such a number of soldiers against the Lacedaemonians as he did before the city of Mantinea, and to shift of the miseries of war and hazard of battle so far from Athens. Which, if the Lacedaemonians did win, could not profit them much: and if they lost it, they could hardly save their city of Sparta.

[omission for length]

Reading for Lesson Five

Part One

Now although Alcibiades did make the city of Athens strong by sea, yet he did not neglect to persuade the Athenians also to make themselves strong by land. For he did put the young men oftentimes in mind of the oath they were made to swear to Aglauros, to the effect that they would account wheat and barley, and vines and olives, to be the limits of Attica; by which they were taught to claim a title to all land that was cultivated and productive.

Yet with all these goodly deeds and fair words of Alcibiades, and with this great courage and quickness of understanding, he had many great faults and imperfections. He intermingled exorbitant luxury and wantonness, in his eating and drinking [North: "riotous banquets"] and dissolute living; wore long purple robes which dragged after him as he went through the marketplace; caused the planks of his galley to be cut away, so that he might lie the softer, his bed not being placed on the boards, but hanging upon girths. His shield, again, which was richly gilded, had not the usual ensigns of the Athenians; but a Cupid, holding a thunderbolt in his hand, was painted upon it.

The noblemen and best citizens of Athens perceiving this, they were much offended at him, but were afraid withal of his rashness and insolence: he did so contemn the laws and customs of their country, being manifest tokens of a man that aspired to be king, and would subvert and turn all overhand. And as for the goodwill of the common people towards him, the poet Aristophanes doth plainly express it in these words:

And in another place he said also, aggravating the suspicion they had of him:

For to say truly: his courtesies, his liberalities, and noble expenses to show the people so great pleasure and pastime as nothing could be more; the glorious memory of his ancestors, the grace of his eloquence, the beauty of his person, the strength and valiantness of his body, joined together with his wisdom and experience in martial affairs, were the very causes that made them to bear with him in all things, and that the Athenians did patiently endure all his excesses, and did cover his faults with the best words and terms they could, calling them "youthful," and "gentlemen's sports." As when he kept Agartharchus the painter prisoner in his house by force, until he had painted all his walls within: and when he had done, did let him go, and rewarded him very honestly for his pains. He publicly struck Taureas, who exhibited certain shows in opposition to him and contended with him for the prize. [omission for content] Wherefore it seemed Archestratus' words were spoken to good purpose, when he said that Greece could not abide two Alcibiades at once.

Once, when Alcibiades succeeded well in an oration which he made, and the whole assembly attended upon him to do him honour, Timon the Misanthrope did not pass slightly by him, nor avoid him, as did others, but purposely met him, and taking him by the hand, said, "Go on boldly, my son, and increase in credit with the people; for thou wilt one day bring them calamities enough." When they had heard these words, those that stood by fell a-laughing. Others reviled Timon; others again marked well his words, and thought of them many a time after; such sundry opinions they had of Alcibiades for the inconstancy of his life, and waywardness of his nature and conditions.

Part Two

The Athenians, even in the lifetime of Pericles, had already cast a longing eye upon Sicily; but did not attempt anything till after his death. Then, under pretense of aiding their confederates, they sent succour upon all occasions to those who were oppressed by the Syracusans, preparing the way for sending over a greater force. But Alcibiades was the person who inflamed this desire of theirs to the height, so that, upon his persuasions, they built castles in the air, and thought to do great wonders only by their winning of Sicily. But that was to Alcibiades but a beginning of further enterprises.

Nicias endeavoured to divert the people from the expedition by representing to them that the taking of Syracuse would be a work of great difficulty; but Alcibiades dreamed of nothing less than the conquest of Carthage and Libya, and by the accession of these conceiving himself at once made master of Italy and Peloponnesus, seemed to look upon Sicily as only to furnish them with victuals, and to pay the soldiers for their conquests which he had imagined. The young men were soon elevated with these hopes, and listened gladly to those of riper years, who talked wonders of the countries they were going to, so that you might see great numbers sitting in the wrestling grounds and public places, drawing on the ground the figure of the island and the situation of Libya and Carthage.

[omission for length]

But Nicias, against his will, was chosen captain, to take charge of men in these wars. He misliked this journey as well for his companion and associate in the charge of these wars, as for other misfortunes he foresaw therein. Howbeit the Athenians thought the war would fall out well if they did not commit it wholly to Alcibiades' rashness and hardiness, but did join with him the wisdom of Nicias; and they appointed Lamachus also for their third captain, whom they sent thither, though he were waxen now somewhat old, as one that had showed himself no less venturous and hardy in some battles than Alcibiades himself.

Reading for Lesson Six

Part One

Now when they came to resolve of the number of soldiers, the furniture and order of these wars, Nicias sought crookedly to thwart this journey, and to break it off altogether: but Alcibiades withstood him, and got the better hand of him. There was an orator called Demostratus, who moved the people also that the captains whom they had chosen for these wars might have full power and authority to levy men at their discretion, and to make such preparation as they thought good: whereunto the people agreed, and did authorize them. But when they were even ready to go their way, many signs of ill success lighted in the neck one of another; and, amongst the rest, this was one. That they were commanded to take ship on the day of the celebration of the Feast of Adonia, on which the custom is that women do set up in divers places of the city, in the midst of the streets, images like to dead corpses, which they carry to burial, and they represent the mourning and lamentations made at the funerals of the dead, with blubbering and beating themselves, in token of the sorrow the goddess Venus made for the death of her friend Adonis. Moreover, the Hermes (which are the images of Mercury, and were wont to be set up in every lane and street) were found in a night all hacked and hewed, and mangled specially in their faces: but this put divers in great fear and trouble, yea even those that made no account of such toys. Whereupon it was alleged that it might be the Corinthians that did it, or procured that lewd act to be done, favouring the Syracusans, who were their near kinsmen, and had been the first founders of them; imagining upon this ill token, it might be a cause to break off the enterprise, and to make the people repent them that they had taken this war in hand.

Nevertheless, the people would not allow this excuse; neither would they hearken to those that said they should not reckon of any such signs or tokens, and that they were but some light-brained youths, that, being drunk, had played this shameful part in their bravery, or for sport. But they took these signs very grievously, and were indeed not a little afraid, looking upon it to proceed from a conspiracy of persons who designed some commotions in the state. The council, as well as the assembly of the people, which were held frequently in a few days' space, examined diligently everything that might administer grounds for suspicion.

Now whilst they were busily searching out the matter, Androcles, one of the demagogues, brought before the council certain slaves and strangers that dwelt in Athens, who insisted that Alcibiades, and others of his friends and companions, had hacked and mangled other images after that sort; and had profanely acted also, at a banquet, the Ceremonies of the Holy Mysteries.

[omission for length]

Whereat the people being marvellously moved and offended, and the orator Androcles, his mortal enemy, aggravating and stirring them up the more against him: Alcibiades, a little at the first, began to be amazed at it. But afterwards, hearing that the mariners which were prepared for the voyage to Sicily, and the soldiers also that were gathered, did bear him great goodwill, and specially how the aid, and that band that came from Argos and Mantinea (being a thousand footmen, well-armed and appointed) did say openly how it was for Alcibiades' sake they did take upon them so long a voyage beyond sea, and that if they went about to do him any hurt or wrong, they would presently return home again from whence they came: he began to be of a good courage again, and determined, with this good favourable opportunity of time, to come before the council, to answer to all such articles and accusations as should be laid against him.

[Omission for length: certain people were persuaded to speak in favour of letting Alcibiades go off and fight, and have his trial later. Alcibiades protested, saying that he could not fight well with such accusations hanging over his head.]

But all this could not persuade them. Thus he was compelled to take the seas with his other companions, having in their navy about a hundred and forty galleys, all having three oars to a bank; and five thousand one hundred footmen very well armed and appointed, and throwers with slings, archers, and other light armed men to the number of thirteen hundred, sufficiently furnished of all warlike and necessary munition.

Part Two

Now after they were arrived on the coast of Italy, they landed at Rhegium: where, holding counsel in what sort they should direct these wars, Alcibiades was opposed by Nicias; but Lamachus being of his opinion, they sailed for Sicily forthwith, and took Catana. But he never did any exploit after that, for he was called home immediately, by the Athenians, to come and answer certain accusations.

For as we told you before, there was at the beginning certain light suspicions and accusations put up against him, by some slaves and strangers. And that afterwards his enemies in Athens enforced those accusations, and burdened him more cruelly, adding to his former fault that he had "broken the images of Mercury, and had committed sacrilege in counterfeiting in jest and mockery the holy Ceremonies of the Mysteries"; and blew into the ears of the people that both the one and the other were intended to change and alter the government of the state of the city.

Upon this information, the people took it in so ill part, that they committed all those to prison that were in any sort accused or suspected thereof, and would never let them come to their answer: and moreover did much repent them that they had not condemned Alcibiades, upon so great accusations as were exhibited against him, while his offense was in question before them.

[An orator named Andocides unexpectedly confessed to the crime of damaging the statues, and this was expected to end the matter.]

Now though the people had no more occasion to occupy their busy heads about the breakers of these images, yet was not their malice thus appeased against Alcibiades, until they sent the galley called the Salaminian, commanding those they sent by a special commission to seek him out; in no case to attempt to take him by force, nor to lay hold on him by violence; but to use him with all the good words and courteous manner that they possibly could, and to will him only to appear in person before the people, to answer to certain accusations put up against him.

[omission for length: a written complaint, giving details of the blasphemous acts supposedly committed by Alcibiades]

If otherwise they should have used force, they feared much lest the army would have mutinied on his behalf within the country of their enemies, and that there would have grown some sedition amongst their soldiers. This might Alcibiades have easily done, if he had been disposed. For the soldiers were very sorry to see him depart, perceiving that the wars should be drawn out now in length, and be much prolonged under Nicias, seeing Alcibiades was taken from them, who was the only spur that pricked Nicias forward to do any service; and that Lamachus also, though he were a valiant man, yet he lacked honour and authority in the army, because he was but a mean man born, and poor besides.

Reading for Lesson Seven

Part One

Now Alcibiades, just upon his departure, prevented Messena from falling into the hands of the Athenians. There were some in that city who were upon the point of delivering it up; but he, knowing the persons, gave information to some friends of the Syracusans, and so defeated the whole contrivance.

When he arrived at Thurii, he went on shore, and, concealing himself there, escaped those who searched after him. Yet there was one that knew him where he was, and said: "Why, how now Alcibiades, dost not thou trust the justice of thy country?" "Yes, very well," quoth he, "if it were in another matter: but my life standing upon it, I would not trust mine own mother, fearing lest negligently she should put in the black bean, where she should cast in the white." For by the first, condemnation of death was signified: and by the other, pardon of life. But afterwards, hearing that the Athenians for malice had condemned him to death: "Well," quoth he, "they shall know I am yet alive."

He was condemned as contumacious upon his not appearing; his property was confiscated; and it was decreed that all the priests and priestesses should solemnly curse him.

[omission for length]

Part Two

After this most grievous sentence and condemnation passed against him, Alcibiades departed out of Thurii, and went into the Peloponnesus, where he remained some time at Argos. But in the end, fearing his enemies, and having no hope to return again to his own country with any safety, he sent to Sparta, desiring safe conduct, and assuring them that he would make them amends by his future services for all the mischief he had done them while he was their enemy.

The Spartans giving him the security he desired, he went eagerly, was well received, at his very first coming, succeeded in inducing them, without any further caution or delay, to send aid to the Syracusans. He so roused and excited them, that they forthwith dispatched Gylippus into Sicily, to crush the forces which the Athenians had there. A second point was to renew the war upon the Athenians at home. But the third thing, and the most important of all, was to make them fortify Decelea, which above everything reduced and wasted the resources of the Athenians.

The renown which he earned by these "public services" was equaled by the admiration he attracted to his private life. He captivated and won over everybody by his conformity to Spartan habits. People who saw him wearing his hair close cut, bathing in cold water, eating coarse meal, and dining on black broth, doubted, or rather could not believe, that he ever had a cook in his house, or had ever seen a perfumer, or had worn a mantle of Milesian purple.

For he had, as it was observed, this peculiar talent and artifice for gaining men's affections, that he could at once comply with, embrace, and enter into their habits and ways of life, and change faster than the chameleon. One colour, indeed, they say the chameleon cannot assume: it cannot itself appear white; but Alcibiades, whether with good men or with bad, could adapt himself to his company, as well the good as the bad.

At Sparta, he was devoted to athletic exercises, was frugal and reserved. In Ionia, to the contrary: there he lived daintily and superfluously, and gave himself to all mirth and pleasure. In Thrace, he drank ever, or was always a-horseback. If he came to Tissaphernes, satrap of the mighty king of Persia, he far exceeded the magnificence of Persia in pomp and sumptuousness. And these things, notwithstanding, never altered his natural condition from one fashion to another, neither did his manners (to say truly) receive all sorts of changes. But because peradventure, if he had showed his natural disposition, he might in divers places where he came, have offended those whose company he kept, he transformed himself into any shape, and adopted any fashion, that he observed to be most agreeable to him.


Alcibiades fathered a child by the wife of King Agis of Sparta, while Agis was away fighting. He excused himself by saying that he "had not done this thing out of mere wantonness of insult, nor to gratify a passion, but that his race might one day be kings over the Lacedaemonians."

Part Three

After the defeat which the Athenians received in Sicily, ambassadors were dispatched to Sparta at once from Chios and Lesbos and Cyzicus, to signify their purpose of revolting from the Athenians. The Boeotians favoured those of Lesbos; Pharnabazus favoured the Cyzicenes; but the Lacedaemonians, at the persuasion of Alcibiades, chose to assist Chios before all others. He himself, also, went instantly to sea, procured the immediate revolt of almost all Ionia, and, co-operating with the Lacedaemonian generals, did great mischief to the Athenians.

But Agis was his enemy, hating him for having dishonoured his wife, and also impatient of his glory, as almost every enterprise and every success was ascribed to Alcibiades. Others also of the greatest authority among the Spartans, that were most ambitious among them, began in their minds to be angry with Alcibiades, for the envy they bore him: who were of so great power, that they procured their governors to write their letters to their captains in the field, to kill him. Alcibiades, hearing of this, did no whit desist to do all he could for the benefit of the Lacedaemonians: yet he had an eye behind him, fleeing all occasions to fall into their hands.

So in the end, for more surety of his person, he went unto Tissaphernes, the king of Persia's satrap; and immediately became the first and most influential person about him. For this barbarous man, not being himself sincere, but a lover of guile and wickedness, admired his cleverness. And, indeed, the charm of daily interaction with him was more than any character could resist or any disposition escape. Even those who feared and envied him could not but take delight, and have a sort of kindness for him, when they saw him and were in his company. So that Tissaphernes, otherwise a cruel character, and above all other Persians, a hater of the Greeks, was yet so won by the flatteries of Alcibiades that he set himself even to exceed him in responding to them. The most beautiful of his parks, containing salubrious streams and meadows, where he had built pavilions, and places of retirement royally and exquisitely adorned, received by his direction the name of "Alcibiades," and was always so called and so spoken of.

Alcibiades despairing utterly to find any safety or friendship among the Spartans, and fearing on the other side King Agis also: he began to speak ill of them, and to disgrace all that they did, to Tissaphernes. By this practice he stayed Tissaphernes from aiding them so friendly as he might: moreover, he did not utterly destroy the Athenians. For he persuaded him that he should furnish the Lacedaemonians but with little money, to let them diminish and consume by little and little: to the end that after one had troubled and weakened the other, they both at the length should be the easier for the king to overcome.

This barbarous man did easily consent to this device. All the world then saw he loved Alcibiades, and esteemed him very much, in the same way as he was well regarded by the Greeks on both sides. Then were the Athenians sorry, and repented, when they had received so great loss and hurt, for that they had decreed so severely against Alcibiades, who in like manner was very sorrowful to see them brought to so hard terms, fearing if the city of Athens came to destruction, that he himself should fall in the end into the hands of the Lacedaemonians, who maliced him to the death.

Reading for Lesson Eight

Part One

At that time, the whole strength of the Athenians was in Samos. Their fleet maintained itself here, and issued from these headquarters to reduce such as had revolted, and protect the rest of their territories; in one way or other still contriving to be a match for their enemies at sea. What they stood in fear of was Tissaphernes, and the Phoenician fleet of one hundred and fifty galleys, which was said to be already under sail; if those came, there remained then no hopes for the commonwealth of Athens.

Understanding this, Alcibiades sent secretly unto the chiefest men that were in the army of the Athenians at Samos, to give them hope he would make Tissaphernes their friend: howbeit not of any desire he had to gratify the people, nor that he trusted to the commonalty of Athens, but only to the "honourable and honest citizens," and that conditionally so as they had the heart and courage to bridle a little the insolence of the people; and, by taking upon them the government, would endeavour to save the city from ruin. All the heads and chief men did give very good ear unto it: saving only Phrynichus, of the township of Dirades, one of the generals; who suspected, as the truth was, that Alcibiades concerned not himself whether the government were in the common people or the "better" citizens, but that he only sought by any means to make way for his return into his native country; and to that end inveighed against the people, thereby to gain the others, and to insinuate himself into their good opinion.

But when Phrynichus found his counsel to be rejected and that he was himself become a declared enemy of Alcibiades, he gave secret information to Astyochus, then admiral to the Lacedaemonians, of Alcibiades' practice; and warned him to take heed of him, and to lay him up safe as a double-dealer, and one that had intelligence with both sides; but he understood not how it was but one traitor to speak to another. For this Astyochus was eager to gain the favour of Tissaphernes, observing the credit Alcibiades had with him; and he revealed to Alcibiades all that Phrynichus had said against him.

Alcibiades straight sent men to Samos, unto the captains there, to accuse Phrynichus of the treason he had revealed against them. Those of the council there, receiving this intelligence, were highly offended with Phrynichus.

So Phrynichus, seeing no better way to save himself for making of this fault, went about to make amends with committing a worse fault. He sent again to Astyochus to reproach him for betraying him; and to make an offer to him at the same time to deliver into his hands both the army and the navy of the Athenians. Howbeit this treason of Phrynichus did the Athenians no hurt at all, by reason of Astyochus' counter-treason: for he did let Alcibiades again understand what offer Phrynichus had made him. But this again was foreseen by Phrynichus, who, expecting a second accusation from Alcibiades, to anticipate him, advertised the Athenians beforehand that the enemy was ready to sail in order to surprise them; and therefore advised them to fortify their camp, and be in a readiness to go aboard their ships.

While the Athenians were intent upon doing these things, they received other letters from Alcibiades, admonishing them to beware of Phrynichus, as one who designed to betray their fleet to the enemy; to which they gave no credit at all, conceiving that Alcibiades, who knew perfectly the counsels and preparations of the enemy, was merely making use of that knowledge in order to impose upon them in this false accusation of Phrynichus. (Yet, afterwards, when Phrynichus was stabbed by a dagger in the marketplace by Hermon, one of the guards, the Athenians, entering into an examination of the cause, solemnly condemned Phrynichus of treason, and decreed crowns to Hermon and his associates.)

Part Two

Those that were Alcibiades' friends, being at that time the greatest men of the council in the army at Samos, sent one Pisander to Athens, to attempt to alter the government, and to encourage the noblemen to take upon them the authority, and to pluck it from the people. They assured them that Tissaphernes would give them aid to do it, by means of Alcibiades, who would make him their friend. This was the colour and cloak wherewith they served their turns, that did change the government of Athens, and that brought it into the hands of a small number of nobility.

But as soon as they prevailed, and had got the administration of affairs into their hands, under the name of the Five Thousand (whereas, indeed, they were but Four Hundred), they slighted Alcibiades altogether, and prosecuted the war with less vigour; partly because they dared not yet trust the citizens, who secretly detested this change; and partly also because they were of opinion that the Lacedaemonians (who at all times did most favour the government of nobility) would be better inclined to make peace with them.

Part Three

Now the common people that remained still in the city stirred not, but were quiet against their wills, for fear of danger, because there were many of them slain that boldly took upon them in open presence to resist these four hundred. But those who were at Samos, indignant when they heard this news, were eager to set sail instantly for the Piraeus; sending for Alcibiades, they declared him general, requiring him to lead them on to put down the tyrants.

He, however, in that juncture, did not, as it might have been thought a man would, on being suddenly exalted by the favour of a multitude, think himself under an obligation to gratify and submit to all the wishes of those who, from a fugitive and an exile, had created him general of so great an army, and given him the command of such a fleet. But to the contrary, as it became a general worthy of such a charge, he considered with himself that it was his part wisely to stay those who would in a rage and fury carelessly cast themselves away, and not suffer them to do it. And by restraining them from the great error they were about to commit, he unequivocally saved the commonwealth. For if they then sailed to Athens, all Ionia, and the islands, and the Hellespont would have fallen into the enemies' hands without opposition; while the Athenians, involved in civil war, would have been fighting with one another within the circuit of their own walls.

It was Alcibiades alone, or, at least, principally, who prevented all this mischief; not only by persuading the whole army, and declaring the inconvenience thereof, which would fall out upon their sudden departure: but also by entreating some, and constraining others. He was much assisted, however, by Thrasybulus of Steiria (#1), who went along with him, and cried out to those who were ready to be gone. For he had the biggest and loudest voice as they say, of any man that was in all the city of Athens.

A second great service which Alcibiades did for them was his undertaking that the Phoenician fleet, which the Lacedaemonians expected to be sent to them by the king of Persia, should either come in aid of the Athenians or otherwise should not come at all. For he departed immediately, and went with great speed to Tissaphernes: whom he handled in such sort, that he brought not the ships that lay at rode before the city of Aspendos, and so he broke promise with the Lacedaemonians. Therefore Alcibiades was marvellously blamed and accused, both by the one and the other side, to have altered Tissaphernes' mind; but chiefly by the Lacedaemonians, who said that he had persuaded this barbarous captain that he should neither aid the one nor the other, but rather to suffer them one to devour and destroy each other. For it was evident that the accession of so great a force to either party would enable them to take away the entire dominion of the sea from the other side.

Shortly after, the four hundred usurpers were driven out, the friends of Alcibiades vigorously assisting those who were for the popular government. And now the people in the city not only desired, but commanded Alcibiades to return home from exile. But he judged with himself it would be of no honour nor grace unto him to return as only upon the people's favour and goodwill; whereas if he had done some greater exploit, his return might be both glorious and triumphant.

[Omission for length: the "exploit" Alcibiades took on was a successful sea battle against the Lacedaemonians.]

Reading for Lesson Nine

Part One

Alcibiades, having now happily gotten this glorious victory, would needs go show himself in triumph unto Tissaphernes. So having prepared to present him with goodly rich presents, and appointed also a convenient train and number of sail meet for a general, he took his course directly to him. But he found not that entertainment he hoped for. For Tissaphernes, standing in great hazard of displeasure, and fear of punishment at the king's hands; and having long time before been defamed by the Lacedaemonians, who had complained of him that he did not fulfill the king's commandment; thought that Alcibiades was arrived in very happy hour; whereupon he kept him prisoner in the city of Sardis, supposing the wrong he had done would by this means easily discharge and purge him to the king.

But about thirty days after, Alcibiades escaped from his keeping; and, having got a horse, fled to Clazomenae, where he procured Tissaphernes additional disgrace by professing he was a party to his escape.

Part Two

From there he sailed to the Athenian camp, and, being informed there that Mindarus and Pharnabazus were together at Cyzicus, he made a speech to the soldiers, telling them that sea-fighting, land-fighting, and, by the gods, fighting against fortified cities too, must be all one for them; as unless they conquered everywhere, there was no money for them.

His oration ended, he made them immediately hoist sail, and so to go lie at anchor in the Isle of Proconnesus: where he took order that they should seize all the small vessels they met, and guard them safely in the interior of the fleet, so that the enemy might have no notice of his coming. A great storm of rain, accompanied with thunder and darkness, which happened at the same time, contributed much to the concealment of his enterprise. Indeed, it was not only undiscovered by the enemy, but the Athenians themselves were ignorant of it; for he commanded them suddenly on board, and set sail when they had abandoned all intention of it.

As the darkness presently passed away, the Peloponnesian fleet was seen riding out at sea, in front of the harbour of Cyzicus. Fearing that if they discovered the number of his ships, they might endeavour to save themselves by land, he commanded the rest of the captains to slacken, and follow him slowly; whilst he, advancing with forty ships, showed himself to the enemy, and provoked them to fight.

The enemy, supposing there had been no more ships than those that were in sight, did set out presently to fight with them. They were no sooner joined together, but Alcibiades' ships that came behind were also seen approaching: the enemies were so terrified that they fled immediately.

Upon that, Alcibiades, breaking through the midst of them with twenty of his best ships, hastened to the shore, disembarked, and pursued those who abandoned their ships and fled to land, and made a great slaughter of them. Moreover, Mindarus, and Pharnabazus, being come out of the city to rescue their people, were overthrown both. He slew Mindarus in the field, fighting valiantly: as for Pharnabazus, he cowardly fled away. So the Athenians spoiled the dead bodies (which were a great number) of a great deal of armour and riches, and took besides all their enemies' ships.

They also made themselves masters of Cyzicus, which was deserted by Pharnabazus, and destroyed its Peloponnesian garrison; and thereby not only secured to themselves the Hellespont, but by force drove the Lacedaemonians from out of all the rest of the sea. They intercepted some letters written to the ephors, which gave an account of this fatal overthrow, after their short laconic manner. "Our hopes are at an end. Mindarus is slain. The men starve. We know not what to do."

Part Three

The soldiers who followed Alcibiades in this last fight were so exalted with their success, and felt that degree of pride, that, looking on themselves as invincible, they disdained to mix with the older soldiers, who had been often overcome. A little before this happened, forces led by Thrasyllus had been overthrown by the city of Ephesus. And for this overthrow, the Ephesians had set up a brass trophy to the disgrace of the Athenians. For the which Alcibiades' soldiers did very much rebuke Thrasyllus' men, and did exceedingly extol their captain and themselves, and would neither encamp with them, neither have to do with them, nor yet keep them company. But soon after, Pharnabazus, with a great force of cavalry and foot soldiers, fell upon the soldiers of Thrasyllus, as they were laying waste the territory of Abydos. Alcibiades came to their aid, routed Pharnabazus, and together with Thrasyllus pursued him till it was night; and in this action the troops united, and returned together to the camp, rejoicing and congratulating one another.

The next morning Alcibiades set up a triumph for the victory he had the day before; and then went to spoil and destroy Pharnabazus' country; and no man dared once come out to meet him.

[omission for length]

Part Four

Alcibiades laid siege to the city of Chalcedon, which he environed all about from the one side of the sea to the other. Pharnabazus came thither, thinking to have raised the siege. And Hippocrates, a captain of the Lacedaemonians, that was governor of the city, assembled all the force he was able to make within the same, and made a sally out also upon the Athenians at the very same time. Whereupon Alcibiades putting his men in order of battle, so as they might give a charge upon them both at one instant: he fought so valiantly, that he forced Pharnabazus to run his way with shame enough, and slew Hippocrates in the field, with a great number of his men.

[Omission for length: Alcibiades also attacked Selymbria and Byzantium.]

Part Five

Now Alcibiades desirous in the end to see his native country again (or to speak more truly, that his countrymen should see him) after he had so many times overthrown their enemies in battle: he hoisted sail, and directed his course towards Athens, bringing with him all the galleys of the Athenians richly furnished, and decked all about with armour and weapons gotten amongst the spoils of his enemies.

[Omission for length: Plutarch points out that, although Alcibiades arrived in great splendour, he must have had certain doubts about his welcome.]

He was no sooner landed, but all the people ran out of every corner to see him, with so great love and affection, that they took no heed of the other captains that came with him, but clustered all to him only, and cried out for joy to see him. Those that could come near him, did welcome and embrace him: but all the people wholly followed him. And some that came to him, put garlands of flowers upon his head: and those that could not come near him, saw him afar off, and the old folks did point him out to the younger sort.

But this common joy was mingled, notwithstanding, with tears and sorrow, when they came to think upon their former misfortunes and calamities, and to compare them with their present prosperity: weighing with themselves also how they would not have lost Sicily, nor would their hope in all things else have failed them, if they had delivered themselves and the charge of their army into Alcibiades' hands, when they sent for him to appear in person before them.

Considering also how he found the city of Athens in manner put from their seigniory and commandment on the sea, and on the other side how their force by land was brought unto such extremity that Athens scantly could defend her suburbs, the city itself being so turmoiled with civil dissension: yet he gathered together that small force that remained, and had now not only restored Athens to her former power and sovereignty on the sea, but had made her also a conqueror by land.

Reading for Lesson Ten

Part One

There had been a decree for recalling Alcibiades from his banishment already passed by the people, at the instance of Critias the son of Callaeschrus, as appears in his elegies [omission for length]. But notwithstanding, the people being assembled, Alcibiades came before them, and made an oration: wherein he first lamented all his mishaps, and found himself grieved a little with the wrongs they had offered him; yet he blamed all on his cursed fortune, and some spiteful god that envied his glory and prosperity. Then he exhorted them to courage and good hope. And to conclude, the people crowned him with crowns of gold, and chose him general again of Athens, both at land and sea, with absolute power.

They also made a decree that his estate should be restored to him, and that the Eumolpidae and the holy herald should absolve him from the curses which they had solemnly pronounced against him by sentence of the people. Which, when all the rest obeyed, Theodorus, the high priest, excused himself. "For," said he, "if he is innocent, I never cursed him."

Part Two

Now Alcibiades flourished in his prosperity; yet were there some, notwithstanding, that misliked very much the time of his landing: saying it was very unlucky and unfortunate. For the day that he came into the port was the day for keeping the feast of the goddess Minerva, when all the ornaments are taken from off her image, and the part of the temple where it stands is kept close covered. Hence the Athenians esteem this day most inauspicious, and never undertake anything of importance upon it. Moreover, it was rumoured that the goddess was not content nor glad of Alcibiades' return: and that she did hide herself, because she would not see him, nor have him come near her.

Yet, notwithstanding, everything succeeded according to his wish. When the one hundred galleys that were to return (to battle) with him were fitted out and ready to sail, an honourable zeal detained him in Athens till the Celebration of the Mysteries was over. For ever since Decelea had been occupied (see Lesson Seven), as the enemy commanded the roads leading from Athens to Eleusis, the procession, being conducted by sea, had not been performed with any proper solemnity; they were forced to omit the sacrifices and dances and other holy ceremonies, which had usually been performed in the way, when they led forth Iacchus.

Alcibiades judged it would be a glorious action, which would do honour to the gods and gain him esteem with men, if he restored the ancient splendour to these rites, escorting the procession again by land, and protecting it with his army in the face of the enemy. For either, if Agis stood still and did not oppose, it would very much diminish and obscure his reputation; or, in the other alternative, Alcibiades would engage in a holy war, in the cause of the gods, and in defense of the most sacred and solemn ceremonies; and this in the sight of his country, where he should have all his fellow-citizens as witnesses of his valour.

Alcibiades being fully resolved upon this design, went and communicated it to the Eumolpidae and heralds. He placed sentinels on the tops of the hills, and at the break of day sent forth his scouts. And then taking with him the priests, Initiates, and Initiators, and encompassing them with his soldiers, he conducted them with great order and profound silence; an august and venerable procession; wherein all who did not envy him said he performed at once the office of a high priest and of a general. The enemy did not dare to attempt anything against them, and thus he brought them back to safety to the city.

Now this did more increase the greatness of his mind, and therewith the people's good opinion of his sufficiency, and wise conduction of an army: insomuch as they thought him invincible, having the sovereign power and authority of a general. He so won, indeed, upon the lower and meaner sort of people, that they passionately desired to have him as "tyrant" over them; and some of them did not scruple to tell him so, and to advise him to put himself out of the reach of envy by abolishing the laws and ordinances of the people, and suppressing the idle talkers that were ruining the state, that so he might act and take upon him the management of affairs, and not stand in fear of slanderous and wicked tongues.

Now, whether Alcibiades ever had any mind to usurp the kingdom, the matter is somewhat doubtful. But this is certain, the greatest men of the city, fearing lest indeed he meant some such thing, hastened him on shipboard as speedily as they could, appointing the colleagues whom he chose, and allowing him all other things as he desired.

Reading for Lesson Eleven

Part One

Thereupon he set sail with a fleet of one hundred ships, and, arriving at Andros, he there fought with and defeated the inhabitants, as well as the Lacedaemonians who assisted them. He did not, however, take the city; which gave the first occasion to his enemies for all their accusations against him. Certainly, if ever a man was ruined by his own glory, it was Alcibiades. For his continual success had produced such an idea of his courage and conduct, that if he failed in anything he undertook, it was imputed to his neglect, and no one would believe it was through want of power. For they thought nothing was too hard for him, if he went about it in good earnest.

They fancied, every day, that they should hear that the Isle of Chios was taken, with all the country of Ionia; they were angry they could have no news so suddenly as they wished. They never considered how extremely money was wanting, and that, having to carry on war with an enemy who had supplies of all things from a great king, he was often forced to leave his camp to seek money where he could get it, to pay his soldiers and to maintain his army.

This it was which gave occasion for the last accusation which was made against him. For Lysander, being sent from Lacedaemon with a commission to be admiral of their fleet, and being furnished by Cyrus with a great sum of money, gave every sailor four obols a day, whereas before they had but three. Alcibiades could hardly allow his men three obols, and therefore was constrained to go into Caria to furnish himself with money. He left the care of the fleet, in his absence, to Antiochus, an experienced seaman, but rash and inconsiderate, who had express orders from Alcibiades not to engage, though the enemy provoked him.

But he slighted and disregarded these direction to that degree, that, having made ready his own galley and another, he made way for Ephesus, where the enemy lay; and, as he sailed before the heads of their galleys, used every provocation possible, both in words and deeds. Lysander at first manned out a few ships, and pursued him. But when all the Athenian ships came in to his assistance, Lysander also brought up his whole fleet, which gained an entire victory. He slew Antiochus himself, took many men and ships, and erected a trophy.

Alcibiades, hearing this ill-favoured news, returned presently with all possible speed to Samos: and when he came thither, he went with all the rest of his fleet to offer Lysander battle. But Lysander, quietly contenting himself with his first victory, would not stir.

Part Two

Amongst others in the army who hated Alcibiades, Thrasybulus the son of Thrason (#2), Alcibiades' enemy, went purposely to Athens to accuse him, and to exasperate his enemies in the city against him. Addressing the people, he represented that Alcibiades had ruined their affairs and lost their ships by mere self-conceited neglect of his duties, committing the government of the army, in his absence, to men who gained his favour by drinking and scurrilous talking, whilst he wandered up and down at pleasure [omission for length and content]. Moreover, they laid to his charge that he did fortify a castle in the country of Thrace, near unto the city of Bisanthe, for a place to retire himself unto, either because he could not, or rather that he would not, live any longer in his own country. The Athenians gave credit to this information, and showed the resentment and displeasure which they had conceived against him by choosing other generals.

As soon as Alcibiades heard of this, he immediately forsook the army, afraid of what might follow; and, collecting a body of mercenary soldiers, made war upon his own account against those Thracians who called themselves free, and acknowledged no king. By this means he amassed to himself a considerable treasure; and, at the same time, secured the bordering Greeks from the incursions of foreign enemies.

Part Three

Now Tydeus, Menander, and Adimanthus, the new-made generals, were at that time posted at Aegospotami, or "Goats' River," with all the galleys the city of Athens had left. From there they used to go out to sea every morning, and offer battle to Lysander, who lay near Lampsacus; and when they had done so, they would return back again, and lay all the rest of the day, carelessly and without order, in contempt of the enemy.

Alcibiades, who was not far off, did not think so slightly of their danger, nor neglect to let them know it; but, mounting his horse, came to the generals, and represented to them that they had chosen a very inconvenient station, where there was no safe harbour, and where they were distant from any town; so that they were constrained to send for their necessary provisions as far as Sestos; and that they suffered their mariners to leave their ships, and go a-land when they lay at anchor, straggling up and down the country without regard that there lay a great army of their enemies before them, ready to be set out at their generals' commandment: and therefore he advised them to remove thence, and to go cast anchor before the city of Sestos. But the admirals not only disregarded what he said, but Tydeus, with insulting expressions, commanded him to be gone, saying that now not he, but others, had the command of the forces.

Alcibiades, suspecting something of treachery in these words, departed, and told his friends who accompanied him out of the camp that if the generals had not used him with such insupportable contempt, he would within a few days have forced the Lacedaemonians, however unwilling, either to have fought the Athenians at sea or to have deserted their ships. Some looked upon this as a piece of ostentation only; others said that the thing was probable, for that he might have brought down by land great numbers of the Thracian cavalry and archers, to assault and disorder them in their camp.

The event, however, soon made it evident how rightly he had judged of the errors which the Athenians committed. For Lysander came so fiercely upon them on a sudden, that of all the ships they had in their whole fleet, only eight galleys were saved, with whom Conon fled; and the others, being not much less than two hundred in number, were every one of them taken and carried away, with three thousand prisoners whom Lysander put to death. And within a short time after, he took Athens itself, burnt all the ships which he found there, and demolished their long walls.

Reading for Lesson Twelve and Examination Questions

Part One

After this, Alcibiades, standing in dread of the Lacedaemonians, who were now masters of both sea and land, retired into Bithynia. He sent thither great treasure before him, took much with him, but left much more in the castle where he had before resided. But he lost great part of his wealth in Bithynia, being robbed by some Thracians who lived in those parts; and thereupon he determined to go to the court of Artaxerxes, not doubting but that the king, if he would make trial of his abilities, would find him not inferior to Themistocles, besides that he was recommended by a more honourable cause. For he went not, as Themistocles did, to offer his service against his fellow-citizens, but against their enemies, and to implore the king's aid for the defense of his country. He concluded that Pharnabazus would most readily procure him a safe conduct, and therefore went into Phrygia to him, and continued to dwell there some time, paying him great respect, and being honourably treated by him.

Part Two

All this while the Athenians found themselves desolate, and in miserable state to see their empire lost: but then much more, when Lysander had taken all their liberties, and did set thirty despotic rulers over their city. Now too late, after all was lost (where they might have recovered again, if they had been wise) they began together to bewail and lament their miseries and wretched state, looking back upon all their willful faults and follies committed: among which, they did reckon their second time of falling out with Alcibiades was their greatest fault. For he was rejected without any fault committed by himself, and only because they were incensed against his subordinate for having shamefully lost a few ships, they much more shamefully deprived the commonwealth of its most valiant and accomplished general.

And yet they had some little poor hope left, that they were not altogether cast away, so long as Alcibiades lived, and had his health. For before, when he was a forsaken man, and led a banished life: yet he could not live idly, and do nothing. "Wherefore now much more," said they to themselves, "if there be any help at all, he will not suffer out of doubt the insolence and pride of the Lacedaemonians, nor yet abide the cruelties and outrages of these thirty tyrants."

And surely the common people had some reason to have these thoughts in their heads, considering that the thirty governors themselves did what they could possibly to spy out Alcibiades' doings, and what he went about. Insomuch as Critias represented to Lysander that the Lacedaemonians could never securely enjoy the dominion of Greece till the Athenians' democracy was absolutely destroyed; and, though now the people of Athens seemed quietly and patiently to submit to so small a number of governors, yet so long as Alcibiades lived, the knowledge of this fact would never suffer them so to be reigned over, but would attempt by all device he could to bring a change and innovation among them.

Yet Lysander would not credit these persuasions, till at last he received secret orders from the magistrates of Lacedaemon, expressly requiring him to get Alcibiades killed: whether it was that they feared his energy and boldness in enterprising what was hazardous, or else that they sought to gratify King Agis by it. Upon receipt of this order, Lysander sent away a messenger to Pharnabazus, desiring him to put it in execution. Pharnabazus committed the affair to Magaeus, his brother, and his uncle, Susamithres.

Part Three

Alcibiades resided at that time in a small village in Phrygia, together with Timandra, a mistress of his.

[omission for content: Alcibiades reportedly had strange dreams, including one in which Magaeus killed him]

Those that were sent to kill him dared not enter the house where he was, but set it afire round about. Alcibiades spying the fire, got such apparel and hangings as he had, and threw it on the fire, thinking to have put it out: and so casting his cloak about his left arm, took his naked sword in his other hand, and ran out of the house, himself not once touched with fire, saving his clothes were a little singed. These murderers so soon as they spied him, drew back, and stood asunder, and dared not one of them come near him, to stand and fight with him: but standing at a distance, they slew him with their darts and arrows.

When he was dead, the barbarians departed; and Timandra took up his dead body, and covering and wrapping it up in her own robes, she buried it as decently and as honourably as her circumstances would allow.

[omission for content]