The Waterbabies

by Charles Kingsley; Study Guide by Anne White
You can purchase this as a single volume paperback or Kindle that includes The Heroes and The Water-babies with Anne White's Study Guide. ($amzn) (K)

Introduction: Swimming With The Water-Babies
Poetic Interlude #1
Reading #1
Reading #2
Reading #3
Poetic Interlude #2
Reading #4
Reading #5
Reading #6
Reading #7
Poetic Interlude #3
Reading #8
Reading #9
Reading #10
Reading #11
Reading #12
Poetic Interlude #4
Reading #13
Reading #14
Reading #15
Poetic Interlude #5
Reading #16
Reading #17
Reading #18
Reading #19
Poetic Interlude #6
Reading #20
Reading #21
Reading #22
Poetic Interlude #7
Reading #23
Reading #24
Reading #25
Reading #26
Poetic Interlude #8
Reading #27
Reading #28
Reading #29
Reading #30
Reading #31
Entirely Optional Exam Questions for The Water-Babies

Preface: The Landscape of Charles Kingsley

Why fairy tales?

When I first thought of calling this volume The Fairy Tales of Charles Kingsley, I was thinking of Kingsley's insistence that The Water-Babies was "just a fairy tale." I thought, like the character Professor Ptthmllnsprts, that it was quite clever of me to notice that Kingsley was doing much the same thing with his book of mythology. But I had forgotten that the subtitle of The Heroes was actually Greek Fairy Tales For My Children. So Kingsley beat me to it.

Perhaps we might secure at least a hundred lovely landscapes too,--sunsets, cloudscapes, starlight nights. At any rate he should go forth well furnished . . . (Charlotte Mason, A Philosophy of Education)

In her book Much May Be Done With Sparrows, Karen Glass writes that, out of those "hundred lovely landscapes" recommended by Mason, the most endangered is the "landscape beyond." While I don't think we've gone completely beyond needing visual art (and music, and poetry, and all the rest), I agree with her that one of the saddest features of childhood today is its updated map stating "Here be no dragons."

Anthony Esolen writes,

It has been a great victory for the crushers of imagination to label such figures "stereotypes," and add a sneer to it, as if people who used them in their stories were not very imaginative--or, sometimes, as if they were downright narrow-minded and wicked. (Ten Ways to Destroy the Imagination of Your Child, p. 96)

But even in Kingsley's day, there were many like Professor Ptthmllnsprts, who refused to see beyond the "concatenations of atoms." In this story, at least, the professor is punished for his stubbornness.

So [the fairy] filled his head with things as they are not, to try if he would like them better . . . (The Water-Babies)

Choose door number one, "water-babies," Kingsley is saying. And golden fleeces, sea-toffees, and balls of string; Gairfowls, centaurs, and ships that can take you to the land of Colchis or St. Brendan's Isle. Because, truly, there are much more frightening things in this world, and in worlds beyond that.

Charlotte Mason warned of the ways that many adults, though well-meaning, nevertheless offend, despise, and hinder little ones (Home Education). She hinted that one of those ways is to keep them from the "landscape beyond."

Once more, we know that there is a storehouse of thought wherein we may find all the great ideas that have moved the world. We are above all things anxious to give the child the key to this storehouse. The education of the day, it is said, does not produce reading people. We are determined that the children shall love books, therefore we do not interpose ourselves between the book and the child. We read him his Tanglewood Tales, and when he is a little older his Plutarch, not trying to break up or water down, but leaving the child's mind to deal with the matter as it can. (Charlotte Mason, Parents and Children)

So, these stories are "door number one," a beginning, a first gift to children living in a world that tells them (and their parents and teachers) not only to ignore the "storehouse," but that it doesn't exist at all.

In his introduction to The Heroes (not included here), Kingsley wrote to his child readers,

Come hither, children, at this blessed Christmas time, when all God's creatures should rejoice together, and bless Him who redeemed them all. Come and see old friends of mine, whom I knew long ere you were born. They are come to visit us at Christmas, out of the world where all live to God; and to tell you some of their old fairy tales, which they loved when they were young like you . . . there are [few] fairy tales like these old Greek ones, for beauty, and wisdom, and truth, and for making children love noble deeds, and trust in God to help them through.

(Fun fact: Nathaniel Hawthorne's A Wonder-Book and Tanglewood Tales were published only a couple of years before Kingsley's The Heroes.)

Why should Christians read these books?

The Secondary World of storytellers, artists, and poets renews the Primary World of the day-to-day. In reading great literature, especially high fantasy and mythology, we see once again the drama of our world as we might have seen it when the world was young, and each event was marvellous in its newness. (Andrew Buckley, "Coffee With Keats")

Learning our fairy tales from a safe childhood place can help us to tell the good and true from the evil and deceitful.

One of the ways I like to illustrate how Beauty fits into this is with the Greek mythology of the Muses and the Sirens: The Muses are the daughters of Zeus who inspire Beauty and Truth, while the Sirens are water nymphs that lure sailors to their death through their bewitching songs. Both involve what appears to be Beauty, but with very different outcomes: one leads to life, while the other leads to death . . . Beauty awakens love; false beauty elicits lust. Truth attracts, lies seduce. (Steven R. Turley, Beauty Matters)

Charles Kingsley wrote his own response to this question:

For you must not fancy, children, that because these old Greeks were heathens, therefore God did not care for them, and taught them nothing. The Bible tells us that it was not so, but that God's mercy is over all His works, and that He understands the hearts of all people, and fashions all their works . . .

For Jesus Christ, remember, is the Light who lights every man who comes into the world. And no one can think a right thought, or feel a right feeling, or understand the real truth of anything in earth and heaven, unless the good Lord Jesus teaches him by His Spirit, which gives man understanding. (Introduction to The Heroes)

Kingsley notes that the Greeks, later in their history, "forgot what God had taught them."

But, at the time of which this little book speaks, they had not fallen as low as that. They worshipped no idols, as far as I can find; and they still believed in the last six of the ten commandments, and knew well what was right and what was wrong. And they believed (and that was what gave them courage) that the gods loved men, and taught them, and that without the gods men were sure to come to ruin. And in that they were right enough, as we know--more right even than they thought; for without God we can do nothing, and all wisdom comes from Him. (Introduction to The Heroes)

A Concluding Thought from Kingsley

The stories are not all true, of course, nor half of them; you are not simple enough to fancy that; but the meaning of them is true, and true for ever, and that is--Do right, and God will help you. (Introduction to The Heroes)

Introduction: Swimming With The Water-Babies

What is The Water-Babies?

The Water-Babies is a moralistic, yet fun, fairy tale from the mind of the English minister-professor-naturalist-poet Charles Kingsley (1819-1875). He apparently wrote it after his wife complained that their three older children (Rose, Maurice, and Mary) already had a book, The Heroes, dedicated to them, but that their youngest, Grenville, needed a book too. Kingsley, reportedly, went into his study and plotted out this "fairy tale for a land-baby."

Its style and themes are planted solidly in the mid-Victorian world, but reflect Kingsley's sense of humour and sometimes slightly unorthodox Christian beliefs. AmblesideOnline students reading The Water-Babies in Year Three (or Form I) will also be reading Kingsley's version of several Greek myths, The Heroes (The Water-Babies contains references to Epimetheus, Prometheus, and Pandora). Those who continue with AO's Year Four (Form II) will also find the style of Madam How and Lady Why very familiar, as Kingsley continues the conversation with the young boy whom he addresses as "my little man" in The Water-Babies. (The last Kingsley book used in the AO Curriculum is Westward Ho! in Year Eight.)

How our family discovered this book

A lot of people have heard of The Water-Babies and may be aware of a few images and scenes from it; however, few have actually read it. British writer J.G. Ballard echoed a common reaction to The Water-Babies when he called it "a masterpiece in its bizarre way, but one of the most unpleasant works of fiction I have ever read..." (in an essay included in The Pleasure of Reading).

My own early exposure to it was (mainly) being loaned a cousin's copy, thinking it looked way too long, not understanding it at all, and giving it back again fairly quickly. I read an illustrated (and probably slightly abridged) edition with my oldest daughter when she was about nine, but it was one of her less-enjoyed AO books (although I do remember her giving a good narration of Mr. Grimes stuck in a chimney).

A few years later, we acquired a set of My Book House volumes, one of which contained a very short version of The Water-Babies. I read it to my book-loving first-grader, but told her that there really was more to the story than that; so she asked to be read The Real Thing. I hesitated, remember my older daughter's ambivalence about the story; but we started off, skipping things here and there but otherwise enjoying the story. My six-year-old didn't seem to worry as much about the questions of death/existence/metaphysics as an older child might; she accepted the book on a simpler, fairy tale level.

So some of the "why read this?" will depend on your child's age. For a young child, it's simply Tom's marvelous adventures underwater, and his struggle not to be greedy and to become better than he has been. When the book says that the fairies came and took Ellie away after her accident, a young child may take that fairly literally; and although it may not be theologically proper, in Kingsley's fairy-tale it is exactly what he means, just as in a Narnia story there can be centaurs and dryads, and Deep Magic that doesn't necessarily correspond to the way things operate in our world.

However, the story is suggested for AO Year Three students who will be about eight to ten years old, and somewhat beyond my first-grader's experience. For those using AO for Groups, it's possible that six- or seven-year-old students in Form I will also be listening in. Year Three students might find the story either somewhat disturbing (too much emphasis on death); or boring (too much talk). So if they are both too old and too young for The Water-Babies, why read it to them?

Year Threes are at about the right age to enjoy Alice in Wonderland, although Kingsley didn't have Lewis Carroll's gift for verbal nonsense and general lunacy. His more restrained but rambling style; his tendency to moralize; and the problematic device of having human entrance into his "other world" come through death, prevents the story from being as appealing as Alice. Still, there are strong characters that make up for the weaknesses in the plot: Tom himself, especially in his periods of mischief; the ugly-but-just Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid (who people usually remember, incorrectly, by her sister's name); and some of the animal characters. There are memorable scenes, such as Tom and Grimes' final reunion at the chimney. The writing is often gently humorous, sometimes even echoing Dickens' style:

As for chimney-sweeping, and being hungry, and being beaten, he took all that for the way of the world, like the rain and snow and thunder, and stood manfully with his back to it till it was over, as his old donkey did to a hailstorm; and then shook his ears and was as jolly as ever; and thought of the fine times coming, when he would be a man, and a master sweep, and sit in the public-house with a quart of beer and a long pipe, and play cards for silver money, and wear velveteens and ankle-jacks, and keep a white bulldog with one grey ear, and carry her puppies in his pocket, just like a man.

And strangely enough, Kingsley himself didn't take his own moral fable too seriously. The last chapter starts: "Here begins the never-to-be-too-much-studied account of the nine-hundred-and-ninety-ninth part of the wonderful things which Tom saw on his journey to the Other-end-of-Nowhere." The "moral," tacked on at the end of the book, is summed up by "Don't Hurt Efts," and a reminder to "stick to hard work and cold water." This suggests that, while Kingsley may have been less amusing (on picnics or in writing) than Lewis Carroll, and therefore less successful in his attempt at fantasy, he didn't see his story as only something "improving." I don't think he aimed at being remembered as the author of "one of the most unpleasant works of fiction" for children. His funny bits, often at the expense of academics and other pompous types (such as the poor professor who was thrown into a state of mental anguish until he admitted that he did believe in water-babies) really are good, too, although they sometimes get off-track.

So we hope that young Grenville appreciated his book.

Why is this not a lesson-book?

Unlike The Heroes, The Water-Babies is not set as a literature book in the AO curriculum. It can be read at any pace you like, and all the extra material, including narration suggestions and exam questions, is entirely optional. Maybe all you will do is read it together, and that's fine.

If parents/teachers wish to use the book in place of another literature book, or perhaps for a Year 3.5 option, the lessons are there to be used. If you incorporate the book into weekly school study, please consider having your student(s) narrate in some form (probably orally, but possibly using some creative format such as drama or visual art). You might choose to use something from the story as copywork; or to learn one of Kingsley's poems (or one of the verses that begin the chapters). If students are keen to know more about the creatures mentioned, or what chimney sweeps do, go ahead and let them explore that (helping as needed). If they want to talk more about some of the big ideas in the book, that's good too.

But let's not turn Kingsley's story into something for which he might send Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid after us with her birch rod.

What is it about? (Spoilers included)

The main character, Tom, starts out as a mistreated apprentice chimney-sweep. During a job at a country estate, he accidentally goes down a chimney into a little girl's bedroom, which causes uproar in the house and causes him to be chased off as a thief. After a mad dash across the moors and down a cliff, he ends up in a river where he is turned into a "water-baby" and begins a new life (although his human body is discovered floating in the river and he is assumed to be dead).

Tom-the-water-baby lives in the river for some time, but eventually becomes lonely for others like himself and finds his way out to sea. At first he cannot find any water-babies there either, but after showing kindness to a trapped lobster, his eyes and ears are opened and he suddenly sees them swimming and hears them singing. The water-babies take him to their home under the sea, where they are visited on Fridays by ugly Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid, and on Sundays by her beautiful sister Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby.

Although Tom misbehaves by stealing sea-candy, he does learn his lesson and is joined by Ellie, the little girl whose room he had stumbled into. Ellie had been hurt (we assume fatally) in an accident, but does not seem to be a water baby; she "goes home" every Sunday, which makes Tom both curious and jealous. When he asks how he can earn the same privilege, the fairy sisters explain that he needs to do something he would not naturally like to do--in Tom's case, helping his hated former master Grimes. Mr. Grimes had also fallen in the river (while poaching) and had since been taken to The Other-end-of-Nowhere.

From this point on the plot becomes Tom's quest to find Grimes and achieve the water-baby equivalent of earning an angel's wings. After journeying to the Shiny Wall and meeting "Mother Carey," he continues through various allegorical "lands." Eventually Tom finds Mr. Grimes, imprisoned in a chimney (the theme of suitable punishment comes up throughout the book). Tom succeeds in his mission and is rewarded as promised, returning to the water-babies' home and Ellie--and he discovers that he and Ellie have become adults.

Is the book about natural history? Should young readers be expected to take great interest in the birds, fish, and sea organisms?

How easily a man might, if he would, wash his soul clean for a while from all the turmoil and intrigue, the vanity and vexation of spirit of that "too populous wilderness," by going out to be alone a while with God in heaven, and with that earth which He has given to the children of men . . . " (Charles Kingsley, Glaucus: Wonders of the Shore)

The Water-Babies contains so many descriptions of river and ocean creatures, and puts so much emphasis on kindness to animals and respect for nature, that some people think of it as a natural-history rather than a literature choice. However, it is more of a didactic (learn-your-lesson) story, on two levels: first, aimed at getting children to do-as-they-would-be-done-by; but also as a platform for Kingsley to air his views on social reform, the issue of science (and pseudo-science) vs. faith, and a few other things that were aimed at parents and the general public rather than the child reader.

One writer has called The Water-Babies "science-supported fantasy," and that seems like a good way to describe it.

Those who wish honestly to learn the laws of Madam How, which we call Nature, by looking honestly at what she does, which we call Fact, have only to begin by looking at the very smallest thing, pin's head or pebble, at their feet, and it may lead them--whither, they cannot tell. (Charles Kingsley, Madam How and Lady Why)

There is some very strange stuff in this book, such as talking birds and policemen's billy clubs that bounce around by themselves; in fact, some of its nonsense bits remind us of Alice in Wonderland.

The Water-Babies was published around the same time as Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, and, like Alice, contains more nonsense (and also interest in things like numbers and looking-glass reversals) than earlier children's books. It predates The Adventures of Pinocchio and George MacDonald's children's fantasies, but shares some strong themes and imagery with those books. Think of noses that grow and Tom's prickles; the Blue Fairy and Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid; and also the North Wind and Princess Irene's great-great-grandmother in George MacDonald's stories.

Sorting out how Kingsley's fairy-tale world works is somewhat confusing. Nobody seems to actually die (and stay dead) in this story; even the blubber-eating birds are old whalers being punished for their greed. This rather loose arrangement is similar to that in Andersen's "The Little Mermaid," with different kinds of beings in different stages of existence, and sometimes in different physical places as well (such as The Other-end-of-Nowhere). Time also shifts and passes in confusing ways--years can go by in a few minutes. You can't always make sense of it--you just have to enjoy the ride.

Is the book an allegory?

No, as Kingsley repeatedly reminds us--it is a fairy tale. However, being Charles Kingsley, he cannot help but poke fun at and sometimes strongly criticize things he disagrees with. Kingsley had more than a few opinions about various cultural, religious and ethnic groups, as well as quack medicine, bad children's books, junk food, and too-tight boots, and did not hesitate to include those in his books. In the case of mistreated child workers such as chimney sweeps, his criticism did, in fact, lead to new laws protecting them.

Why alter the book?

To eliminate ethnic and religious slurs.
To avoid some of Kingsley's more baffling Victorian references.
To give a bit of advance warning when a ramble is coming up.
To update some spelling and punctuation, as well as a few words that have changed meaning since Kingsley's time.

In some ways, The Water-Babies was never meant for children at all. It can be read as a thinly-disguised commentary on the still-quite-new idea of evolution (to which Kingsley was not entirely averse), and on the seemingly limitless progress of mankind; but also on the misuses of science and technology. As Charlotte Mason's teachers were reminded to "mix it with brains," Kingsley's slogan might have been "mix it with imagination." At one point in the story he refers to Gulliver's Travels, which, similarly, was written as satire of some very specific types of eighteenth-century people; but since much of that would have gone over children's heads, they simply enjoyed as much of the story as they understood, and took much of the rest as nonsense. Again, similarly, one might take Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a wonderful story for its own sake; or as a deep dive into the eclectic mind of Lewis Carroll.

However, we don't (or shouldn't) present children with abridged versions of Alice, so why so with The Water-Babies?

I realize it is presumptuous to try to improve on Kingsley, although certainly I am not the first to try to shorten the story somewhat. For an older child who can do his own skipping-where-necessary, and who can handle Kingsley's surprising rudeness toward almost everything neither of his country nor of his church, certainly it would be preferable to enjoy The Real Thing. Adults who desire to follow Kingsley down his many philosophical and scientific rabbit holes are advised to find themselves an unabridged copy of The Water-Babies, cringeworthy though a few of the references may be. Our purpose here is to tell as much of the story as seems advisable for AO Year Three (or Form I) students, and their parents/teachers.

Eight Chapters, Many Readings

If you're reading straight through the book, you might read a chapter, or half a chapter, at a time. However, you could choose to go more slowly, especially with younger students. For that reason, the book has been divided into thirty-one suggested "Readings." You can tell where the original eight chapters are divided by the "Poetic Interludes" that come before each one.

Why No Illustrations?

The first reason, besides not being able to use copyrighted illustrations, is the issue of how one portrays the naked water-babies: some readers appreciate not having so many little backsides cluttering up the text. Another is that many of us are already overstimulated with pictures these days, and sometimes it is better to use our own imaginations to populate the story.

The exception will be in readings where, for instance, an aquatic creature is mentioned (like the Limnias melicerta), and it would be helpful and enlightening to look for a photo, either online or in reference books.

However, a browse through an illustrated edition (maybe after reading the edited version together) would not be a bad thing to do. I would give an especially high rating to the 1915 illustrations by cartoonist W. Heath Robinson, which are everything we could want them to be: modest, humorous, plentiful, and full of graceful Art Nouveau touches. His illustration of the turnips is, in itself, worth looking up.

Certain Vocabulary Words We Try Not to Use

Stupid: Kingsley uses this adjective regularly; in this version it has been edited out where possible. In the usage of the time, "stupid" did not always reflect on one's intelligence, but could mean anything from foolish and unwilling to listen to wisdom, to merely dull and tedious. One might say that the hot day was making them feel "stupid," meaning sluggish and sleepy.

Heathen: Here we get into some deep water. Someone regarded as a "heathen" is one who does not follow a generally accepted religious belief or practice. Because the word is contentious, it has been edited out where it did not seem necessary.

"Matthew Cuthbert, it's about time somebody adopted that child and taught her something. She's next door to a perfect heathen. Will you believe that she never said a prayer in her life till tonight?" (L. M. Montgomery, Anne of Green Gables [AO Free Reading, Year Five])

A Few Questions for Older People to Consider

1. One of the most frequently repeated metaphors in the book is water, and its relationship to dirt/cleansing and death/rebirth. Does Kingsley's use of water tie in well with the (traditional) Christian uses of this image (cleansing, baptism), or is he doing something different with it?

2. Another frequent theme is that of physical transformation: boy into water-baby, insects shedding their skins, the DoAsYouLikes becoming ape-like creatures, and the ugly fairy becoming beautiful. Why do you think this is such a common theme in fairy-tales and other children's books?

3. Kingsley differentiates between those who abuse children out of malice, and those who neglect or mistreat them out of ignorance. Do you agree that there is a difference?

4. Finally: why does Kingsley seem to undercut himself by reminding us that it's "only" a fairy tale and that we mustn't believe it--even if it's true?

Elim Garak: My dear Doctor, they're all true.
Dr. Julian Bashir: Even the lies?
Elim Garak: Especially the lies.
(Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, "The Wire")

Poetic Interlude #1

Before beginning each chapter, Kingsley provides a bit of poetry, that might or might not give a clue to what is coming up next. This first "Interlude" is from William Wordsworth's "Lines Written in Early Spring." (This poem can also be found in AO's collection of poems for Year Four.]

I heard a thousand blended notes,
While in a grove I sate reclined;
In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to the mind.

To her fair works did Nature link
The human soul that through me ran;
And much it grieved my heart to think,
What man has made of man.

Reading #1


Charles Kingsley begins this story by telling us almost everything we might want to know about Tom's early life as a chimney sweep. What might not be quite clear is that Tom has no family, and seems to live quite on his own. At that time, it was not uncommon for very poor people to sleep in rough, falling-down buildings, such as those that likely would have been found on Tom's "court."

The other two things that young readers might need to know are when and where the story takes place. The Water-Babies was first published as a magazine serial (a story that goes on from issue to issue) during 1862-1863, and then it was published as a book in 1863. So it's likely that the "real life" parts of the story are set around that time. The "where" is in the northern part of England, probably Yorkshire, and you will notice a few different words and ways of talking that sound like that part of the country. (One of the Free Reading books for AO Year Four (Form II) is The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett, which is also set in Yorkshire.)


There are certainly a lot of potential vocabulary pitfalls in this first reading! However, please remember that the words are here only for reference, and are not meant to be taught via flashcard, worksheet, or any other such means. You might want to explain just a few words ahead of time that might help your students make better sense of the reading.

court: short street

flue: a large pipe (or open space) going up inside a chimney

public-house: place to drink alcohol (now often shortened to "pub"); tavern

ankle-jacks: boots

groom: boy employed to take care of horses

the Place: Harthover Place, the great estate owned by Sir John Harthover

drab: fabric of a dull brown colour

gaiters: leg coverings

breeches: trousers

under a flag of truce: agreeing to act peaceably

public schools: private schools where wealthy boys were taught to be gentlemen

awful: awe-inspiring

collier: one who works in a coal mine

poach: to steal fish or game belonging to someone else; one who does so is a poacher

squire: a country gentleman; usually the main landowner in a town or county

fifteen stone: 210 pounds (about 95 kg)

thrashed: beaten

a "buirdly awd chap": a burly or muscular fellow

gradely: pretty

pert: perky, lively

gamecock: a rooster bred for fighting

pitmen: miners

turnpike: a toll gate, where travelers would be charged to use a road (though these had largely gone out of fashion with the arrival of the railroads, so it is unclear whether Mr. Grimes had to pay to go through the gate)

matins: morning prayers

sedges: grasslike plants, often growing near rivers

he never had been so far into the country before: This seems odd, since Tom knows about the deer and pheasants at the Place, and it is implied that his earlier arrests might have been due to helping Grimes poach salmon. However, we can take it that he has never had such a leisurely jaunt there, especially during daylight hours.

crimson madder: a shade of red, produced by dyeing cloth with the madder plant

petticoat: under-skirt

nosegay: small bunch of flowers

beadle: an officer of the law

two years ago come Martinmas: Martinmas is the feast day of St. Martin, on November 11th. This story opens in midsummer, so she is saying "it will be two years ago this November."

cowed: frightened by her threats

foul: dirty, polluted


Galway: a city and county in Ireland. At the time of this writing, many of its people had been impoverished by the Great Famine.

Vendale: a place we will hear more about in Reading #4


Part One

Once upon a time there was a little chimney-sweep, and his name was Tom.

That is a short name, and you have heard it before, so you will not have much trouble in remembering it.

He lived in a great town in the North country, where there were plenty of chimneys to sweep, and plenty of money for Tom to earn and his master to spend. He could not read nor write, and did not care to do either; and he never washed himself, for there was no water up the court where he lived. He had never been taught to say his prayers. He never had heard of God, or of Christ, except in words which you never have heard, and which it would have been well if he had never heard.

He cried half his time, and laughed the other half. He cried when he had to climb the dark flues, rubbing his poor knees and elbows raw; and when the soot got into his eyes, which it did every day in the week; and when his master beat him, which he did every day in the week; and when he had not enough to eat, which happened every day in the week likewise. And he laughed the other half of the day, when he was tossing half pennies with the other boys, or playing leap-frog over the posts, or bowling stones at the horses' legs as they trotted by, which last was excellent fun, when there was a wall at hand behind which to hide.

As for chimney-sweeping, and being hungry, and being beaten, he took all that for the way of the world, like the rain and snow and thunder, and stood manfully with his back to it till it was over, as his old donkey did to a hailstorm; and then shook his ears and was as jolly as ever; and thought of the fine times coming, when he would be a man, and a master sweep, and sit in the public-house with a quart of beer and a long pipe, and play cards for silver money, and wear velveteens and ankle-jacks, and keep a white bulldog with one grey ear, and carry her puppies in his pocket, just like a man. And he would have apprentices, one, two, three, if he could. How he would bully them, and knock them about, just as his master did to him; and make them carry home the soot sacks, while he rode before them on his donkey, with a pipe in his mouth and a flower in his buttonhole, like a king at the head of his army.

[omission for content]

One day a smart little groom rode into the court where Tom lived. Tom was just hiding behind a wall, to heave half a brick at his horse's legs as is the custom of that country when they welcome strangers; but the groom saw him, and halloed to him to know where Mr. Grimes, the chimney-sweep, lived. Now, Mr. Grimes was Tom's own master, and Tom was a good man of business, and always civil to customers, so he put the half-brick down quietly behind the wall, and proceeded to take orders.

Mr. Grimes was to come up next morning to Sir John Harthover's, at the Place, for his old chimney-sweep was gone to prison, and the chimneys wanted sweeping. And so he rode away, not giving Tom time to ask what the sweep had gone to prison for, which was a matter of interest to Tom, as he had been in prison once or twice himself. Moreover, the groom looked so very neat and clean, with his drab gaiters, drab breeches, drab jacket, snow-white tie with a smart pin in it, and clean round ruddy face, that Tom was offended and disgusted at his appearance, and considered him a stuck-up fellow, who gave himself airs because he wore smart clothes, and other people paid for them; and went behind the wall to fetch the half-brick after all; but did not, remembering that he had come in the way of business, and was, as it were, under a flag of truce.

His master was so delighted at his new customer that he knocked Tom down out of hand, and drank more beer that night than he usually did in two, in order to be sure of getting up in time next morning; for the more a man's head aches when he wakes, the more glad he is to turn out, and have a breath of fresh air. And, when he did get up at four the next morning, he knocked Tom down again, in order to teach him (as young gentlemen used to be taught at public schools) that he must be an extra good boy that day, as they were going to a very great house, and might make a very good thing of it, if they could but give satisfaction.

And Tom thought so likewise, and, indeed, would have done and behaved his best, even without being knocked down. For, of all places upon earth, Harthover Place (which he had never seen) was the most wonderful, and, of all men on earth, Sir John (whom he had seen, having been sent to jail by him twice) was the most awful.

Part Two

Harthover Place was really a grand place, even for the rich North country; with a [very large house]; a park full of deer, which Tom believed to be monsters who were in the habit of eating children; miles of game-preserves, in which Mr. Grimes and the collier lads poached at times, on which occasions Tom saw pheasants, and wondered what they tasted like; [and] a noble salmon-river, in which Mr. Grimes and his friends would have liked to poach; but then they must have got into cold water, and that they did not like at all. In short, Harthover was a grand place, and Sir John a grand old man, whom even Mr. Grimes respected; for not only could he send Mr. Grimes to prison when he deserved it, as he did once or twice a week; not only did he own all the land about for miles; not only was he a jolly, honest, sensible squire, as ever kept a pack of hounds, who would do what he thought right by his neighbours, as well as get what he thought right for himself; but, what was more, he weighed full fifteen stone, was nobody knew how many inches round the chest, and could have thrashed Mr. Grimes himself in fair fight, which very few folk round there could do, and which would not have been right for him to do, as a great many things are not which one both can do, and would like very much to do. So Mr. Grimes touched his hat to him when he rode through the town, and called him a "buirdly awd chap," and his young ladies "gradely lasses," which are two high compliments in the North country; and thought that that made up for his poaching Sir John's pheasants; whereby you may perceive that Mr. Grimes had not been to a properly-inspected Government National School.

Now, I dare say, you never got up at three o'clock on a midsummer morning. Some people get up then because they want to catch salmon; and some because they want to climb Alps; and a great many more because they must, like Tom. But I assure you that three o'clock on a midsummer morning is the pleasantest time of all the twenty-four hours, and all the three hundred and sixty-five days; and why everyone does not get up then, I never could tell, save that they are all determined to spoil their nerves and their complexions by doing all night what they might just as well do all day. But Tom, instead of going out to dinner at half-past eight at night, and to a ball at ten, and finishing off somewhere between twelve and four, went to bed at seven (when his master went to the public-house), and slept like a dead pig; for which reason he was as pert as a gamecock (who always gets up early to wake the maids), and just ready to get up when the fine gentlemen and ladies were just ready to go to bed.

So he and his master set out. Grimes rode the donkey in front, and Tom and the brushes walked behind: out of the court, and up the street, past the closed window-shutters, and the winking weary policemen, and the roofs all shining grey in the grey dawn. They passed through the pitmen's village, all shut up and silent now, and through the turnpike; and then they were out in the real country, and plodding along the black dusty road, between black slag walls, with no sound but the groaning and thumping of the pit-engine in the next field.

But soon the road grew white, and the walls likewise; and at the wall's foot grew long grass and [bright] flowers, all drenched with dew; and instead of the groaning of the pit-engine, they heard the skylark saying his matins high up in the air, and the pit-bird warbling in the sedges, as he had warbled all night long.

All else was silent. For old Mrs. Earth was still fast asleep; and, like many pretty people, she looked still prettier asleep than awake. The great elm-trees in the gold-green meadows were fast asleep above, and the cows fast asleep beneath them; nay, the few clouds which were about were fast asleep likewise, and so tired that they had lain down on the earth to rest, in long white flakes and bars, among the stems of the elm-trees, and along the tops of the alders by the stream, waiting for the sun to bid them rise and go about their day's business in the clear blue overhead.

On they went; and Tom looked, and looked, for he never had been so far into the country before; and longed to get over a gate, and pick buttercups, and look for birds' nests in the hedge; but Mr. Grimes was a man of business, and would not have heard of that.

Part Three

Soon they came up with a poor Irishwoman, trudging along with a bundle at her back. She had a grey shawl over her head, and a crimson madder petticoat; so you may be sure she came from Galway. She had neither shoes nor stockings, and limped along as if she were tired and footsore; but she was a very tall handsome woman, with bright grey eyes, and heavy black hair hanging about her cheeks. And she took Mr. Grimes' fancy so much, that when he came alongside he called out to her: "This is a hard road for a gradely foot like that. Will ye up, lass, and ride behind me?"

But, perhaps, she did not admire Mr. Grimes' look and voice; for she answered quietly: "No, thank you; I'd sooner walk with your little lad here."

"You may please yourself," growled Grimes, and went on smoking.

So she walked beside Tom, and talked to him, and asked him where he lived, and what he knew, and all about himself, till Tom thought he had never met such a pleasant-spoken woman. And she asked him, at last, whether he said his prayers! and seemed sad when he told her that he knew no prayers to say.

Then he asked her where she lived, and she said far away by the sea. And Tom asked her about the sea; and she told him how it rolled and roared over the rocks in winter nights, and lay still in the bright summer days, for the children to bathe and play in it; and many a story more, till Tom longed to go and see the sea, and bathe in it likewise.

Part Four

Adding one more bit to the reading makes it a bit long, but it seems right to finish this scene before Grimes and Tom have to go off and sweep chimneys at the Place.

At last, at the bottom of a hill, they came to a spring; [not such a little spring as we have in the south of England], but a real North country limestone fountain, like one of those in Sicily or Greece, where [those in olden times] fancied the nymphs sat cooling themselves [on a] hot summer's day, while the shepherds peeped at them from behind the bushes. Out of a low cave of rock, at the foot of a limestone crag, the great fountain rose, quelling, and bubbling, and gurgling, so clear that you could not tell where the water ended and the air began; and ran away under the road, a stream large enough to turn a mill; among blue geranium, and golden globe-flower, and wild raspberry, and the bird-cherry with its tassels of snow.

And there Grimes stopped, and looked; and Tom looked too.

Tom was wondering whether anything lived in that dark cave, and came out at night to fly in the meadows. But Grimes was not wondering at all. Without a word, he got off his donkey, and clambered over the low road wall, and knelt down, and began dipping his ugly head into the spring--and very dirty he made it.

Tom was picking the flowers as fast as he could. The Irishwoman helped him, and showed him how to tie them up; and a very pretty nosegay they had made between them. But when he saw Grimes actually wash, he stopped, quite astonished; and when Grimes had finished, and began shaking his ears to dry them, he said: "Why, master, I never saw you do that before."

"Nor will again, most likely. 'Twasn't for cleanliness I did it, but for coolness. I'd be ashamed to want washing every week or so [omission]."

"I wish I might go and dip my head in," said poor little Tom. "It must be as good as putting it under the town-pump; and there is no beadle here to drive a chap away."

"Thou come along," said Grimes; "what dost want with washing thyself? Thou did not drink half a gallon of beer last night, like me."

"I don't care for you," said naughty Tom, and ran down to the stream, and began washing his face. Grimes was very sulky, because the woman preferred Tom's company to his; so he dashed at him with horrid words, and tore him up from his knees, and began beating him. But Tom was accustomed to that, and got his head safe between Mr. Grimes' legs, and kicked his shins with all his might.

"Are you not ashamed of yourself, Thomas Grimes?" cried the Irishwoman over the wall.

Grimes looked up, startled at her knowing his name; but all he answered was, "No, nor never was yet"; and went on beating Tom.

"True for you. If you ever had been ashamed of yourself, you would have gone over into Vendale long ago."

"What do you know about Vendale?" shouted Grimes; but he left off beating Tom.

"I know about Vendale, and about you, too. I know, for instance, what happened in Aldermire Copse, by night, two years ago come Martinmas."

"You do?" shouted Grimes; and leaving Tom, he climbed up over the wall, and faced the woman. Tom thought he was going to strike her; but she looked him too full and fierce in the face for that.

"Yes; I was there," said the Irishwoman quietly.

"You are no Irishwoman, by your speech," said Grimes, after many bad words.

"Never mind who I am. I saw what I saw; and if you strike that boy again, I can tell what I know."

Grimes seemed quite cowed, and got on his donkey without another word.

"Stop!" said the Irishwoman. "I have one more word for you both; for you will both see me again before all is over. Those that wish to be clean, clean they will be; and those that wish to be foul, foul they will be. Remember."

And she turned away, and through a gate into the meadow. Grimes stood still a moment, like a man who had been stunned. Then he rushed after her, shouting, "You come back."

But when he got into the meadow, the woman was not there. Had she hidden away? There was no place to hide in. But Grimes looked about, and Tom also, for he was as puzzled as Grimes himself at her disappearing so suddenly; but look where they would, she was not there.

Grimes came back again, as silent as a post, for he was a little frightened; and, getting on his donkey, filled a fresh pipe, and smoked away, leaving Tom in peace.

Narration and Discussion

Tell what you know so far about Tom the chimney-sweep.

In this reading we meet an "Irishwoman," although Grimes accuses her of not being quite what she seems. Do you think he is right?

For further thought: Find as many places as you can in this passage that mention washing/cleanliness and dirt (hint: even names are meaningful). This is a theme that is going to build throughout the story.

For even further thought: Wordsworth says, "And much it grieved my heart to think, / What man has made of man." Why do you think Kingsley chose these lines? Are there things that should still grieve us "to think what man has made of man?"

Both infamy and fame mean being thought about and talked about by a large number of people; and we know how this natural desire is worked by the daily press; how we get, now a film actress, now a burglar, a spy, a hero, or a scientist set before us to be our admiration and our praise. (Charlotte Mason, Philosophy of Education, pp. 84-85

Reading #2


Tom goes to work cleaning out the giant chimneys at Harthover Place--and gets lost.


lodge-gates: A small house, or lodge, where a gate-keeper would live.

bogy: This word usually means something frightening but unreal, like a hobgoblin; but the bogies that Tom sees here are sculptures on top of the gate-posts, a bit like gargoyles.

crest: badge, symbol

Wars of the Roses: wars fought for the English throne in the fifteenth century

prudent: wise

avenue: in this context, an avenue is a path or driveway leading up to a house

civilly: politely

rhododendrons, azaleas: flowering shrubs

mind that: pay attention, remember that

till they ran one into another: Those who have read Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Samuel Whiskers will remember that Tom Kitten got lost in a similar maze of old chimneys.

quality: rich people

kinsman: relative

ewer: water jug

fender: the frame around a fireplace

nurse: nursemaid, nanny

stupid: foolish and careless. See Special Vocabulary Notes in the Introduction for more discussion of this word.


Part One

And now they had gone three miles and more, and came to Sir John's lodge-gates.

Very grand lodges they were, with very grand iron gates and stone gate-posts, and on the top of each a most dreadful bogy, all teeth, horns, and tail, which was the crest which Sir John's ancestors wore in the Wars of the Roses; and very prudent men they were to wear it, for all their enemies must have run for their lives at the very first sight of them.

Grimes rang at the gate, and out came a keeper on the spot, and opened.

"I was told to expect thee," he said. "Now thou'lt be so good as to keep to the main avenue, and not let me find a hare or a rabbit on thee when thou comest back. I shall look sharp for one, I tell thee."

"Not if it's in the bottom of the soot-bag," quoth Grimes, and at that he laughed; and the keeper laughed and said:

"If that's thy sort, I may as well walk up with thee to the hall."

"I think thou best had," [said Grimes]. "It's thy business to see after thy game, man, and not mine."

So the keeper went with them; and, to Tom's surprise, he and Grimes chatted together all the way quite pleasantly. He did not know that a keeper is only a poacher turned outside in, and a poacher a keeper turned inside out.

They walked up a great lime avenue, a full mile long, and between their stems Tom peeped trembling at the horns of the sleeping deer, which stood up among the ferns. Tom had never seen such enormous trees, and as he looked up he fancied that the blue sky rested on their heads. But he was puzzled very much by a strange murmuring noise, which followed them all the way. So much puzzled, that at last he took courage to ask the keeper what it was. He spoke very civilly, and called him Sir, for he was horribly afraid of him, which pleased the keeper, and he told him that they were the bees about the lime flowers.

"What are bees?" asked Tom.

"What make honey."

"What is honey?" asked Tom.

"Thou hold thy noise," said Grimes.

"Let the boy be," said the keeper. "He's a civil young chap now, and that's more than he'll be long if he bides with thee."

Grimes laughed, for he took that for a compliment.

"I wish I were a keeper," said Tom, "to live in such a beautiful place, and wear green velveteens and have a real dog-whistle at my button, like you."

The keeper laughed; he was a kind-hearted fellow enough.

"Let well alone, lad, and ill too at times. Thy life's safer than mine at all events, eh, Mr. Grimes?"

And Grimes laughed again, and then the two men began talking quite low.

Tom could hear, though, that it was about some poaching fight; and at last Grimes said surlily, "Hast thou anything against me?"

"Not now."

"Then don't ask me any questions till thou hast, for I am a man of honour." And at that they both laughed again, and thought it a very good joke.

Part Two

And by this time they were come up to the great iron gates in front of the house; and Tom stared through them at the rhododendrons and azaleas, which were all in flower; and then at the house itself, and wondered how many chimneys there were in it, and how long ago it was built, and what was the man's name that built it, and whether he got much money for his job?

These last were very difficult questions to answer. For Harthover had been built at ninety different times, and in nineteen different styles, and looked as if somebody had built a whole street of houses of every imaginable shape, and then stirred them together with a spoon.

[Omission: a list of the periods represented in Harthover, and the good-advice-givers who tried to get Sir John to fix up the old muddle.]

So they were all setting upon poor Sir John, year after year, and trying to talk him into spending a hundred thousand pounds or so, in building to please them and not himself. But he always put them off, like a canny North-countryman as he was. One wanted him to build a Gothic house, but he said he was no Goth; and another to build an Elizabethan, but he said he lived under good Queen Victoria, and not good Queen Bess; and another was bold enough to tell him that his house was ugly, but he said he lived inside it, and not outside; and another, that there was no unity in it, but he said that that was just why he liked the old place. For he liked to see how each Sir John, and Sir Hugh, and Sir Ralph, and Sir Randal, had left his mark upon the place, each after his own taste; and he had no more notion of disturbing his ancestors’ work than of disturbing their graves. For now the house looked like a real live house, that had a history, and had grown and grown as the world grew; and that it was only an upstart fellow who did not know who his own grandfather was, who would change it for some spick-and-span new Gothic or Elizabethan thing, which looked as if it had been all spawned in a night, as mushrooms are. From which you may collect (if you have wit enough) that Sir John was a very sound-headed, sound-hearted squire, and just the man to keep the countryside in order, and show good sport with his hounds.

But Tom and his master did not go in through the great iron gates, as if they had been Dukes or Bishops, but round the back way, and a very long way round it was; and into a little back-door, where the ash-boy let them in, yawning horribly; and then in a passage the housekeeper met them, in such a flowered chintz dressing-gown, that Tom mistook her for My Lady herself, and she gave Grimes solemn orders about "You will take care of this, and take care of that," as if he was going up the chimneys, and not Tom. And Grimes listened, and said every now and then, under his voice, "You'll mind that, you little beggar?" and Tom did mind, all at least that he could. And then the housekeeper turned them into a grand room, all covered up in sheets of brown paper, and bade them begin, in a lofty and tremendous voice; and so after a whimper or two, and a kick from his master, into the grate Tom went, and up the chimney, while a housemaid stayed in the room to watch the furniture; to whom Mr. Grimes paid many playful and chivalrous compliments, but met with very slight encouragement in return.

How many chimneys Tom swept I cannot say; but he swept so many that he got quite tired, and puzzled too, for they were not like the town flues to which he was accustomed, but such as you would find--if you would only get up them and look, which perhaps you would not like to do--in old country-houses, large and crooked chimneys, which had been altered again and again, till they ran one into another. So Tom fairly lost his way in them; not that he cared much for that, though he was in pitchy darkness, for he was as much at home in a chimney as a mole is underground; but at last, coming down as he thought the right chimney, he came down the wrong one, and found himself standing on the hearthrug in a room the like of which he had never seen before.

Part Three

Tom had never seen the like. He had never been in gentlefolks' rooms but when the carpets were all up, and the curtains down, and the furniture huddled together under a cloth, and the pictures covered with aprons and dusters; and he had often enough wondered what the rooms were like when they were all ready for the quality to sit in. And now he saw, and he thought the sight very pretty.

The room was all dressed in white--white window-curtains, white bed-curtains, white furniture, and white walls, with just a few lines of pink here and there. The carpet was [patterned with] little flowers; and the walls were hung with pictures in gilt frames, which amused Tom very much. There were pictures of ladies and gentlemen, and pictures of horses and dogs. The horses he liked; but the dogs he did not care for much, for there were no bulldogs among them, not even a terrier. But the two pictures which took his fancy most were, [first], a man in long garments, with little children and their mothers round him, who was laying his hand upon the children's heads. That was a very pretty picture, Tom thought, to hang in a lady's room. For he could see that it was a lady's room by the dresses which lay about.

The other picture was that of a man nailed to a cross, which surprised Tom much. He fancied that he had seen something like it in a shop-window. But why was it there? "Poor man," thought Tom, "and he looks so kind and quiet. But why should the lady have such a sad picture as that in her room? Perhaps it was some kinsman of hers [who had been killed in such a way], and she kept it there for a remembrance." And Tom felt sad, and awed, and turned to look at something else.

The next thing he saw, and that too puzzled him, was a washing-stand, with ewers and basins, and soap and brushes, and towels, and a large bath full of clean water--what a heap of things all for washing! "She must be a very dirty lady," thought Tom, "by my master's rule, to want as much scrubbing as all that. But she must be very cunning to put the dirt out of the way so well afterwards, for I don't see a speck about the room, not even on the very towels."

And then, looking toward the bed, he saw that dirty lady, and held his breath with astonishment. Under the snow-white coverlet, upon the snow-white pillow, lay the most beautiful little girl that Tom had ever seen. Her cheeks were almost as white as the pillow, and her hair was like threads of gold spread all about over the bed. She might have been as old as Tom, or maybe a year or two older; but Tom did not think of that. He thought only of her delicate skin and golden hair, and wondered whether she was a real live person, or one of the wax dolls he had seen in the shops. But when he saw her breathe, he made up his mind that she was alive, and stood staring at her, as if she had been an angel out of heaven.

No. She cannot be dirty. She never could have been dirty, thought Tom to himself. And then he thought, "And are all people like that when they are washed?" And he looked at his own wrist, and tried to rub the soot off, and wondered whether it ever would come off. "Certainly I should look much prettier then, if I grew at all like her."

And looking round, he suddenly saw, standing close to him, a little ugly, [blackened], ragged figure [omission]. He turned on it angrily. What did such a [creature] want in that sweet young lady's room? And behold, it was himself, reflected in a great mirror the like of which Tom had never seen before.

And Tom, for the first time in his life, found out that he was dirty; and burst into tears with shame and anger; and turned to sneak up the chimney again and hide; and upset the fender and threw the fire-irons down, with a noise as of ten thousand tin kettles tied to ten thousand mad dogs' tails.

Up jumped the little white lady in her bed, and, seeing Tom, screamed as shrill as any peacock. In rushed a stout old nurse from the next room, and seeing Tom likewise, made up her mind that he had come to rob, plunder, destroy, and burn; and dashed at him, as he lay over the fender, so fast that she caught him by the jacket.

But she did not hold him. Tom had been in a policeman's hands many a time, and out of them too, what is more; and he would have been ashamed to face his friends for ever if he had been stupid enough to be caught by an old woman; so he doubled under the good lady's arm, across the room, and [was] out of the window in a moment.

Narration and Discussion

Why did the keeper not think that Tom should want to have a job like his?

Explain how Tom ended up in the little girl's bedroom.

For further thought #1: As mentioned in Reading #1, the story contains many references to washing and dirt. Tom lives in a town where, we assume, he has seen all kinds of people, not just poor and dirty ones; yet when he sees the girl in her very white bedroom, it is as if he has never seen "clean" before. Why is it that his eyes are being opened in this new way? (Did it have anything to do with what the Irishwoman said?)

For further thought #2: Do you recognize the descriptions of any of the pictures in the girl's bedroom? Do you think they might be important later on?

Reading #3


Tom runs away--and then runs some more.


scythe: cutting tool

shin: front part of the lower leg

churn: a container in which to make butter

hack: short for hackney, a riding horse

stoat: a small animal like a weasel

marten: yet another weasel-like animal

night-wig: Something which seems to exist only in this book.

she came in nowhere, and is consequently not placed: referring to winners and losers as if it had been a horse-race

magpies and jays: particularly noisy birds

screaking: screeching

copper: penny, small coin

coach-wheels: cartwheels

birch: a kind of tree. Kingsley also uses the word to mean "beat," as a schoolmaster or work-master (like Grimes) might do to someone with a birch rod.

till the cock-robins covered him with leaves: refers to the English children's story "Babes in the Wood"

grouse-moor: A moor is a piece of open, high and hilly land. A large part of northern England is made up of moors. Grouse are wild birds which live (and are hunted) on such places.

fell: another word for a moor

heather: one of the most common plants on a moor

bog: a wetland area, often (in this area) made of peat moss

cunning: clever, sly

stag: an adult male deer

throw the hounds out: trick his pursuers into thinking he had gone another way

plantation: literally, a planted area of the estate

a great brown, sharp-nosed creature: a mother fox or vixen

air danced reels: this is called "heat haze" or "heat shimmer," when the hot air rising mixes with cooler air and its increased density bends the light, creating visible wavy lines in the air. If that sounds too complicated, just remember to look on a hot, sunny day if you are near something that reflects heat, like a paved roadway--see if you can see a kind of shimmer in the air above it.

limekiln: a kiln (or oven) in which limestone is burned (so something giving off a great deal of heat)

heath: plants on the moor

a bit and a sup: something to eat

weir: dam, or some other structure holding back water in a river

ouzel: a bird like a blackbird

infinite main: ocean


Exmoor: a moorland area in southwest England


Part One

He did not need to drop out, though he would have done so bravely enough. Nor even to let himself down a spout, which would have been an old game to him; for once he got up by a spout to the church roof, he said to take jackdaws' eggs, but the policeman said to steal lead; and, when he was seen on high, sat there till the sun got too hot; and came down by another spout, leaving the policemen to go back to the stationhouse and eat their dinners.

But all under the window spread a tree, with great leaves and sweet white flowers, almost as big as his head. It was magnolia, I suppose; but Tom knew nothing about that, and cared less; for down the tree he went, like a cat, and across the garden lawn, and over the iron railings, and up the park towards the wood, leaving the old nurse to scream "murder and fire" at the window.

The under-gardener, mowing, saw Tom, and threw down his scythe; caught his leg in it, and cut his shin open, whereby he kept his bed for a week; but in his hurry he never knew it, and gave chase to poor Tom.

The dairymaid heard the noise, got the churn between her knees, and tumbled over it, spilling all the cream; and yet she jumped up, and gave chase to Tom.

A groom cleaning Sir John's hack at the stables let him [the horse] go loose, whereby he kicked himself lame in five minutes; but he [the groom] ran out and gave chase to Tom.

Grimes upset the soot-sack in the new-graveled yard, and spoilt it all utterly; but he ran out and gave chase to Tom.

The old steward opened the park-gate in such a hurry, that he hung up his pony's chin upon the spikes, and, for aught I know, it hangs there still; but he jumped off, and gave chase to Tom.

The ploughman left his horses at the headland, and one jumped over the fence, and pulled the other into the ditch, plough and all; but he ran on, and gave chase to Tom.

The keeper, who was taking a stoat out of a trap, let the stoat go, and caught his own finger; but he jumped up, and ran after Tom; and considering what he said, and how he looked, I should have been sorry for Tom if he had caught him.

Sir John looked out of his study window (for he was an early old gentleman) and up at the nurse, and a marten dropped mud in his eye, so that he had at last to send for the doctor; and yet he ran out, and gave chase to Tom.

The Irishwoman, too, was walking up to the house to beg,--she must have got round by some byway,--but she threw away her bundle, and gave chase to Tom likewise. Only My Lady did not give chase; for when she had put her head out of the window, her night-wig fell into the garden, and she had to ring up her lady's-maid, and send her down for it privately, which quite put her out of the running, so that she came in nowhere, and is consequently not placed.

In a word, never was there heard at Hall Place--not even when the fox was killed in the conservatory, among acres of broken glass, and tons of smashed flower-pots--such a noise, row, hubbub, babel, shindy, hullabaloo, stramash, charivari, and total contempt of dignity, repose, and order, as that day, when Grimes, the gardener, the groom, the dairymaid, Sir John, the steward, the ploughman, the keeper, and the Irishwoman, all ran up the park, shouting "Stop thief," in the belief that Tom had at least a thousand pounds' worth of jewels in his empty pockets; and the very magpies and jays followed Tom up, screaking and screaming, as if he were a hunted fox [omission].

And all the while poor Tom paddled up the park with his little bare feet, like a small [omission] gorilla fleeing to [a father gorilla in] the forest [who would take care of his attackers]. However, Tom did not remember ever having had a father; so he did not look for one, and expected to have to take care of himself; while as for running, he could keep up for a couple of miles with any stagecoach, if there was the chance of a copper or a cigar-end, and turn coach-wheels on his hands and feet ten times following, which is more than you can do. Wherefore his pursuers found it very difficult to catch him; and we will hope that they did not catch him at all.

Part Two

Tom, of course, made for the woods. He had never been in a wood in his life; but he was sharp enough to know that he might hide in a bush, or swarm up a tree, and, altogether, had more chance there than in the open. If he had not known that, he would have been foolisher than a mouse or a minnow.

But when he got into the wood, he found it a very different sort of place from what he had fancied. He pushed into a thick cover of rhododendrons, and found himself at once caught in a trap. The boughs laid hold of his legs and arms, poked him in his face and his stomach, made him shut his eyes tight (though that was no great loss, for he could not see at best a yard before his nose); and when he got through the rhododendrons, the hassock-grass and sedges tumbled him over, and cut his poor little fingers afterwards most spitefully; and the birches "birched" him soundly [omission].

"I must get out of this," thought Tom, "or I shall stay here till somebody comes to help me--which is just what I don't want."

But how to get out was the difficult matter. And indeed I don't think he would ever have got out at all, but have stayed there till the cock-robins covered him with leaves, if he had not suddenly run his head against a wall.

Now running your head against a wall is not pleasant, especially if it is a loose wall, with the stones all set on edge, and a sharp cornered one hits you between the eyes and makes you see all manner of beautiful stars. The stars are very beautiful, certainly; but unfortunately they go in the twenty-thousandth part of a split second, and the pain which comes after them does not. And so Tom hurt his head; but he was a brave boy, and did not mind that a penny. He guessed that over the wall the cover would end; and up it he went, and over like a squirrel. And there he was, out on the great grouse-moors, which the country folk called Harthover Fell--heather and bog and rock, stretching away and up, up to the very sky.

Now, Tom was a cunning little fellow--as cunning as an old Exmoor stag. Why not? Though he was but ten years old, he had lived longer than most stags, and had more wits to start with into the bargain. He knew as well as a stag that if he backed he might throw the hounds out. So the first thing he did when he was over the wall was to make the neatest double sharp to his right, and run along under the wall for nearly half a mile.

Whereby Sir John, and the keeper, and the steward, and the gardener, and the ploughman, and the dairymaid, and all the hue-and-cry together, went on ahead half a mile in the very opposite direction, and inside the wall, leaving him a mile off on the outside; while Tom heard their shouts die away in the woods and chuckled to himself merrily.

At last he came to a dip in the land, and went to the bottom of it, and then he turned bravely away from the wall and up the moor; for he knew that he had put a hill between him and his enemies, and could go on without their seeing him.

But the Irishwoman, alone of them all, had seen which way Tom went. She had kept ahead of everyone the whole time; and yet she neither walked nor ran. She went along quite smoothly and gracefully, while her feet twinkled past each other so fast that you could not see which was foremost; till every one asked the other who the strange woman was; and all agreed, for want of anything better to say, that she must be in league with Tom.

But when she came to the plantation, they lost sight of her; and they could do no less. For she went quietly over the wall after Tom, and followed him wherever he went. Sir John and the rest saw no more of her; and out of sight was out of mind.

Part Three

So Tom went on and on, he hardly knew why; but he liked the great wide strange place, and the cool fresh bracing air. But he went more and more slowly as he got higher up the hill; for now the ground grew very bad indeed. Instead of soft turf and springy heather, he met great patches of flat limestone rock, just like ill-made pavements, with deep cracks between the stones and ledges, filled with ferns; so he had to hop from stone to stone, and now and then he slipped in between, and hurt his little bare toes, though they were tolerably tough ones; but still he would go on and up, he could not tell why.

What would Tom have said if he had seen, walking over the moor behind him, the very same Irishwoman who had taken his part upon the road? But whether it was that he looked too little behind him, or whether it was that she kept out of sight behind the rocks and knolls, he never saw her, though she saw him.

And now he began to get a little hungry, and very thirsty; for he had run a long way, and the sun had risen high in heaven, and the rock was as hot as an oven, and the air danced reels over it, as it does over a limekiln, till everything round seemed quivering and melting in the glare.

But he could see nothing to eat anywhere, and still less to drink. The heath was full of bilberries and whimberries; but they were only in flower yet, for it was June. And as for water, who can find that on the top of a limestone rock?

Now and then he passed by a deep dark swallow-hole, going down into the earth, as if it was the chimney of some dwarf's house underground; and more than once, as he passed, he could hear water falling, trickling, tinkling, many many feet below. How he longed to get down to it, and cool his poor baked lips! But, brave little chimney-sweep as he was, he dared not climb down such chimneys as those.

So he went on and on, till his head spun round with the heat, and he thought he heard church-bells ringing, a long way off.

"Ah!" he thought, "where there is a church there will be houses and people; and, perhaps, someone will give me a bit and a sup." So he set off again, to look for the church; for he was sure that he heard the bells quite plain.

And in a minute more, when he looked round, he stopped again, and said, "Why, what a big place the world is!" And so it was; for, from the top of the mountain he could see--what could he not see?

Behind him, far below, was Harthover, and the dark woods, and the shining salmon river; and on his left, far below, was the town, and the smoking chimneys of the collieries; and far, far away, the river widened to the shining sea; and [he saw] little white specks, which were ships [omission]. Before him lay, spread out like a map, great plains, and farms, and villages, amid dark knots of trees. They all seemed at his very feet; but he had sense to see that they were long miles away.

And to his right rose moor after moor, hill after hill, till they faded away, blue into blue sky. But between him and those moors, and really at his very feet, lay something, to which, as soon as Tom saw it, he determined to go, for that was the place for him. A deep, deep green and rocky valley, very narrow, and filled with wood; but through the wood, hundreds of feet below him, he could see a clear stream [omission]. Oh, if he could but get down to that stream!

Then, by the stream, he saw the roof of a little cottage, and a little garden set out in squares and beds. And there was a tiny little red thing moving in the garden, no bigger than a fly. As Tom looked down, he saw that it was a woman in a red petticoat. Ah! perhaps she would give him something to eat.

And there were the church-bells ringing again. Surely there must be a village down there. Well, nobody would know him, or what had happened at the Place. The news could not have got there yet, even if Sir John had set all the policemen in the county after him; and he could get down there in five minutes.

Part Four

Tom was quite right about the hue-and-cry not having got thither; for he had come, without knowing it, the best part of ten miles from Harthover; but he was wrong about getting down in five minutes, for the cottage was more than a mile off, and a good thousand feet below.

However, down he went, like a brave little man as he was, though he was very footsore, and tired, and hungry, and thirsty; while the church-bells rang so loud, he began to think that they must be inside his own head, and the river chimed and tinkled far below; and this was the song which it sang:

      Clear and cool, clear and cool,
By laughing shallow, and dreaming pool;
      Cool and clear, cool and clear,
By shining shingle, and foaming weir;
Under the crag where the ouzel sings,
And the ivied wall where the church-bell rings,
                  Undefiled, for the undefiled;
      Play by me, bathe in me, mother and child.

                  Dank and foul, dank and foul,
      By the smoky town in its murky cowl;
                  Foul and dank, foul and dank,
      By wharf and sewer and slimy bank;
Darker and darker the farther I go,
Baser and baser the richer I grow;
                  Who dare sport with the sin-defiled?
      Shrink from me, turn from me, mother and child.

                  Strong and free, strong and free,
      The floodgates are open, away to the sea,
                  Free and strong, free and strong,
      Cleansing my streams as I hurry along,
To the golden sands, and the leaping bar,
And the taintless tide that awaits me afar.
As I lose myself in the infinite main,
Like a soul that has sinned and is pardoned again.
                  Undefiled, for the undefiled;
      Play by me, bathe in me, mother and child.

So Tom went down; and all the while he never saw the Irishwoman going down behind him.

Narration and Discussion

Why didn't Tom just go back to the house and say that he hadn't stolen anything?

Why do you think the Irishwoman is continuing to follow Tom? Why does she not try to catch up with him or speak to him?

Do you like the river's song, or do you think it sounds dangerous? (Special note: There is a 1978 recording called Lionel Jeffries' Water Babies, which can be found online. This song comes about six minutes from the beginning.)

What is the highest place you have ever been? What did you see?

Poetic Interlude #2

The poetic lines for Chapter II come from "The Ministry of Angels," by Edmund Spenser.

And is there care in heaven? and is there love
In heavenly spirits to these creatures base
That may compassion of their evils move?
There is:--else much more wretched were the case
Of men than beasts: But oh! the exceeding grace
Of Highest God that loves His creatures so,
And all His works with mercy doth embrace,
That blessed Angels He sends to and fro,
To serve to wicked man, to serve His wicked foe!

Reading #4


Tom finally finds a place to rest, but the heat (and possibly banging his head) have left him unwell.


down: a grass-covered hill, usually composed of chalk. Charles Kingsley lived in the south of England, where most of the "downs" are, and he seems to have used the word that came to mind. In the north, it would be more typical to call such a chalk hill a "wold."

bogies: This word was mentioned earlier; here it means something like "bad spirits."

stout: strong

staunch: loyal

gnat: a small two-winged fly resembling a mosquito

midge: also a small two-winged fly, but from a different family

clematis: a climbing, flowering plant

Chris-cross-row: or "Christ-cross row"; refers to an old school book which was used to teach children the alphabet

beck: brook, stream

clemmed: hungry, famished

drought: thirst

bairn: child

draught: swallow

outhouse: shed, outbuilding


Kingsley names a number of hills and other places where you could search for the valley of Vendale; however, as they are scattered across England and even into Scotland, I believe he is having a bit of geographical fun with us.

High Craven: part of the Craven Dales in Yorkshire

Bolland Forest: or Forest of Bowland. This is mostly in the county of Lancashire, but part of it is in Yorkshire.

Ingleborough: a mountain peak in Yorkshire

Nine Standards: Nine Standards Rigg is the summit (high point) of Hartley Fell in the Pennine Hills, in the north of England

Cross Fell: the highest point in England outside of the Lake District

Scaw Fell: or Scafell Pike. A mountain peak in the Lake District National Park (about a half hour's drive from Ambleside)

Carlisle: city in the north of England, near the Scottish border

Annan Water: the River Annan, in southwest Scotland

Berwick Law: a hill in Scotland

Lewthwaite Crag: apparently a real place but called Malham Cove


Part One

A mile off, and a thousand feet down.

So Tom found it; though it seemed as if he could have chucked a pebble on to the back of the woman in the red petticoat who was weeding in the garden, or even across the dale to the rocks beyond. For the bottom of the valley was just one field broad, and on the other side ran the stream; and above it, grey crag, grey down, grey stair, grey moor walled up to heaven.

A quiet, silent, rich, happy place; a narrow crack cut deep into the earth; so deep, and so out of the way, that the bad bogies can hardly find it out. The name of the place is Vendale; and if you want to see it for yourself, you must go up into the High Craven, and search from Bolland Forest north by Ingleborough, to the Nine Standards and Cross Fell; and if you have not found it, you must turn south, and search the Lake Mountains, down to Scaw Fell and the sea; and then, if you have not found it, you must go northward again by merry Carlisle, and search the Cheviots all across, from Annan Water to Berwick Law; and then, whether you have found Vendale or not, you will have found such a country, and such a people, as ought to make you proud of being a British boy.

So Tom went to go down; and first he went down three hundred feet of steep heather, mixed up with loose brown gritstone, as rough as a file; which was not pleasant to his poor little heels, as he came bump, stump, jump, down the steep. And still he thought he could throw a stone into the garden.

Then he went down three hundred feet of limestone terraces, one below the other, as straight as if a carpenter had ruled them with his ruler and then cut them out with his chisel. There was no heath there, but--

First, a little grass slope, covered with the prettiest flowers, rockrose and saxifrage, and thyme and basil, and all sorts of sweet herbs.

Then bump down a two-foot step of limestone.

Then another bit of grass and flowers.

Then bump down a one-foot step.

Then another bit of grass and flowers for fifty yards, as steep as the house-roof, where he had to slide down on his dear little tail.

Then another step of stone, ten feet high; and there he had to stop himself, and crawl along the edge to find a crack; for if he had rolled over, he would have rolled right into the old woman's garden, and frightened her out of her wits.

Then, when he had found a dark narrow crack, full of green-stalked fern [omission], and had crawled down through it, with knees and elbows, as he would down a chimney, there was another grass slope, and another step, and so on, till--oh, dear me! I wish it was all over; and so did he. And yet he thought he could throw a stone into the old woman's garden.

At last he came to a bank of beautiful shrubs; white-beam with its great silver-backed leaves, and mountain-ash, and oak; and below them cliff and crag, cliff and crag, with great beds of crown-ferns and wood-sedge; while through the shrubs he could see the stream sparkling, and hear it murmur on the white pebbles. He did not know that it was three hundred feet below.

You would have been giddy, perhaps, at looking down: but Tom was not. He was a brave little chimney-sweep; and when he found himself on the top of a high cliff, instead of sitting down and crying [omission], he said, "Ah, this will just suit me!" though he was very tired; and down he went, by stock and stone, sedge and ledge, bush and rush [omission].

And all the while he never saw the Irishwoman coming down behind him.

Part Two

But he was getting terribly tired now. The burning sun on the fells had sucked him up; but the damp heat of the woody crag sucked him up still more; and the perspiration ran out of the ends of his fingers and toes, and washed him cleaner than he had been for a whole year. But, of course, he dirtied everything terribly as he went. There has been a great black smudge all down the crag ever since [omission].

At last he got to the bottom. But, behold, it was not the bottom--as people usually find when they are coming down a mountain. For at the foot of the crag were heaps and heaps of fallen limestone [omission]; and before Tom got through [those], he was out in the bright sunshine again; and then he felt, once for all and suddenly, as people generally do, that he was b-e-a-t, beat.

You must expect to be beat a few times in your life, little man, if you live such a life as a man ought to live, let you be as strong and healthy as you may; and when you are, you will find it a very ugly feeling. I hope that that day you may have a stout, staunch friend by you who is not beat; for, if you have not, you had best lie where you are, and wait for better times, as poor Tom did.

He could not get on. The sun was burning, and yet he felt chill all over. He was quite empty, and yet he felt quite sick. There was but two hundred yards of smooth pasture between him and the cottage, and yet he could not walk down it. He could hear the stream murmuring only one field beyond it, and yet it seemed to him as if it was a hundred miles off.

He lay down on the grass till the beetles ran over him, and the flies settled on his nose. I don't know when he would have got up again, if the gnats and the midges had not taken compassion on him. But the gnats blew their trumpets so loud in his ear, and the midges nibbled so at his hands and face wherever they could find a place free from soot, that at last he woke up, and stumbled away, down over a low wall, and into a narrow road, and up to the cottage door.

Part Three

And a neat pretty cottage it was, with clipped yew hedges all round the garden, and yews inside too, cut into peacocks and trumpets and teapots and all kinds of [strange] shapes. And out of the open door came a noise like that of the frogs [omission] when they know that it is going to be scorching hot tomorrow--and how they know that I don't know, and you don't know, and nobody knows.

He came slowly up to the open door, which was all hung round with clematis and roses; and then peeped in, half afraid. And there sat by the empty fireplace, which was filled with a pot of sweet herbs, the nicest old woman that ever was seen, in her red petticoat, and short dimity bedgown, and clean white cap, with a black silk handkerchief over it, tied under her chin. At her feet sat the grandfather of all the cats; and opposite her sat, on two benches, twelve or fourteen neat, rosy, chubby little children, learning their Chris-cross-row; and gabble enough they made about it.

Such a pleasant cottage it was, with a shiny clean stone floor, and curious old prints on the walls, and an old black oak sideboard full of bright pewter and brass dishes, and a cuckoo clock in the corner, which began shouting as soon as Tom appeared: not that it was frightened at Tom, but that it was just eleven o'clock.

All the children started at Tom's [torn, dirty] figure. The girls began to cry, and the boys began to laugh, and all pointed at him rudely enough; but Tom was too tired to care for that.

"What art thou, and what dost want?" cried the old dame. "A chimney-sweep! Away with thee! I'll have no sweeps here."

"Water," said poor little Tom, quite faint.

"Water? There's plenty i' the beck," she said, quite sharply.

"But I can't get there; I'm most clemmed with hunger and drought." And Tom sank down upon the door-step, and laid his head against the post.

And the old dame looked at him through her spectacles one minute, and two, and three; and then she said, "He's sick; and a bairn's a bairn, sweep or none."

"Water," said Tom.

"God forgive me!" and she put by her spectacles, and rose, and came to Tom. "Water's bad for thee; I'll give thee milk." And she [omission] brought a cup of milk and a bit of bread.

Tom drank the milk off at one draught, and then looked up, revived.

"Where didst come from?" said the dame.

"Over Fell, there," said Tom, and pointed up into the sky.

"Over Harthover? and down Lewthwaite Crag? Art sure thou art not lying?"

"Why should I?" said Tom, and leant his head against the post.

"And how got ye up there?"

"I came over from the Place"; and Tom was so tired and desperate he had no heart or time to think of a story, so he told all the truth in a few words.

"Bless thy little heart! And thou hast not been stealing, then?"


"Bless thy little heart! and I'll warrant not. Why, God's guided the bairn, because he was innocent! Away from the Place, and over Harthover Fell, and down Lewthwaite Crag! Who ever heard the like, if God hadn't led him? Why dost not eat thy bread?"

"I can't."

"It's good enough, for I made it myself."

"I can't," said Tom, and he laid his head on his knees, and then asked, "Is it Sunday?"

"No, then; why should it be?"

"Because I hear the church-bells ringing so."

"Bless thy pretty heart! The bairn's sick. Come wi' me, and I'll hap thee up somewhere. If thou wert a bit cleaner I'd put thee in my own bed, for the Lord's sake. But come along here."

But when Tom tried to get up, he was so tired and giddy that she had to help him and lead him. She put him in an outhouse upon soft sweet hay and an old rug, and bade him sleep off his walk, and she would come to him when school was over, in an hour's time.

Narration and Discussion

Would you like to go to the school in Vendale? Why or why not?

Why does the schoolmistress think Tom is not telling the truth?

What do you think is wrong with him?

Reading #5


Tom, apparently delirious with fever, ends up in the Vendale stream. Also, we find out something more about the "Irishwoman."


casement: a window that opens in an outward direction


dear old North Devon: Kingsley is obviously a bit homesick for the place where he grew up.


Part One

And so she went in again, expecting Tom to fall fast asleep at once.

But Tom did not fall asleep. Instead he turned and tossed and kicked about in the strangest way, and felt so hot all over that he longed to get into the river and cool himself; and then he fell half asleep, and dreamt that he heard the little white lady crying to him, "Oh, you're so dirty; go and be washed"; and then that he heard the Irishwoman saying, "Those that wish to be clean, clean they will be."

And then he heard the church-bells ring so loud, close to him too, that he was sure it must be Sunday, in spite of what the old dame had said; and he would go to church, and see what a church was like inside, for he had never been in one, poor little fellow, in all his life. But the people would never let him come in, all over soot and dirt like that. He must go to the river and wash first.

And he said out loud again and again, though being half asleep he did not know it, "I must be clean, I must be clean."

And all of a sudden he found himself not in the outhouse on the hay, but in the middle of a meadow, over the road, with the stream just before him, saying continually, "I must be clean, I must be clean." He had got there on his own legs, between sleep and awake, as children will often get out of bed, and go about the room, when they are not quite well. But he was not a bit surprised, and went on to the bank of the brook, and lay down on the grass, and looked into the clear, clear limestone water, with every pebble at the bottom bright and clean, while the little silver trout dashed about in fright at the sight of his [dirty] face; and he dipped his hand in and found it so cool, cool, cool; and he said, "I will be a fish; I will swim in the water; I must be clean, I must be clean."

So he pulled off all his clothes in such haste that he tore some of them, which was easy enough with such ragged old things. And he put his poor hot sore feet into the water; and then his legs; and the farther he went in, the more the church-bells rang in his head.

"Ah," said Tom, "I must be quick and wash myself; the bells are ringing quite loud now; and they will stop soon, and then the door will be shut, and I shall never be able to get in at all."

Tom was mistaken: for in England the church doors are left open all service time, for any [peaceable person who likes to come in].But Tom did not know that, any more than he knew a great deal more which people ought to know.

And all the while he never saw the Irishwoman, not behind him this time, but before.

Part Two

For just before he came to the riverside, she had stepped down into the cool clear water; and her shawl and her petticoat floated off her, and the green water-weeds floated round her sides, and the white water-lilies floated round her head, and the fairies of the stream came up from the bottom and bore her away and down upon their arms; for she was the Queen of them all; and perhaps of more besides.

"Where have you been?" they asked her.

"I have been smoothing sick folks' pillows, and whispering sweet dreams into their ears; opening cottage casements to let out the stifling air; coaxing little children away from gutters, and foul pools where fever breeds [omission]; doing all I can to help those who will not help themselves: and little enough that is, and weary work for me. But I have brought you a new little brother, and watched him safe all the way here."

Then all the fairies laughed for joy at the thought that they had a little brother coming.

"But mind, maidens, he must not see you, or know that you are here. He is [still] like the beasts which perish; and from the beasts which perish he must learn. So you must not play with him, or speak to him, or let him see you: but only keep him from being harmed."

Then the fairies were sad, because they could not play with their new brother, but they always did what they were told. And their Queen floated away down the river; and whither she went, thither she came.

But all this Tom, of course, never saw or heard: and perhaps if he had it would have made little difference in the story; for he was so hot and thirsty, and longed so to be clean for once, that he tumbled himself as quick as he could into the clear cool stream.

And he had not been in it two minutes before he fell fast asleep, into the quietest, sunniest, coziest sleep that ever he had in his life; and he dreamt about the green meadows by which he had walked that morning, and the tall elm-trees, and the sleeping cows; and after that he dreamt of nothing at all.

The reason of his falling into such a delightful sleep is very simple; and yet hardly anyone has found it out. It was merely that the fairies took him.

Part Three: Interlude Between Kingsley and the Reader

Some people think that there are no fairies. But it is a wide world, and plenty of room in it for fairies, without people seeing them; unless, of course, they look in the right place. The most wonderful and the strongest things in the world, you know, are just the things which no one can see. There is life in you; and it is the life in you which makes you grow, and move, and think: and yet you can't see it. And there is steam in a steam-engine; and that is what makes it move: and yet you can't see it [omission]. At all events, we will make believe that there are fairies in the world. It will not be the last time by many a one that we shall have to make believe. And yet, after all, there is no need for that. There must be fairies; for this is a fairy tale: and how can one have a fairy tale if there are no fairies?

You don't see the logic of that?

Perhaps not. Then please not to see the logic of a great many arguments exactly like it, which you will hear before your beard is grey.

Part Four

The kind old dame came back at twelve, when school was over, to look at Tom: but there was no Tom there. She looked about for his footprints; but the ground was so hard that there was no slot, as they say in dear old North Devon. So the old dame went in again quite sulky, thinking that little Tom had tricked her with a false story, and shammed ill, and then run away again.

But she altered her mind the next day. For, when Sir John and the rest of them had run themselves out of breath, and lost Tom, they went back again, looking very foolish. And they looked more foolish still when Sir John heard more of the story from the nurse; and more foolish still, again, when they heard the whole story from Miss Ellie, the little lady in white. All she had seen was a poor little chimney-sweep, [covered in coal dust], crying and sobbing, and going to get up the chimney again. Of course, she was very much frightened: and no wonder. But that was all. The boy had taken nothing in the room; by the mark of his little sooty feet, they could see that he had never been off the hearthrug till the nurse caught hold of him. It was all a mistake.

So Sir John told Grimes to go home, and promised him five shillings if he would bring the boy quietly up to him, without beating him, that he might be sure of the truth. For he took for granted, and Grimes too, that Tom had made his way home.

But no Tom came back to Mr. Grimes that evening; and he went to the police-office, to tell them to look out for the boy. But no Tom was heard of. As for his having gone over those great fells to Vendale, they no more dreamed of that than of his having gone to the moon.

Narration and Discussion

This is one of the more difficult parts of the book to explain, especially since we do not yet have the full story of what has happened to Tom. Kingsley takes some pains to remind us that "this is a fairy tale," and, though we may believe that Tom has died in the river, in fairy tale terms he has simply been moved into a different place (we might say, a different state of being--and how very different, we shall soon see). One of Kingsley's very big ideas is about the beginnings of things; so, in that sense, Tom has not died at all so much as he has been given a chance to begin all over again.

In the meantime, we might think about what we have just discovered about the "Irishwoman," who is now shown to be the Queen of the "fairies of the stream," among other things. What do you think she might mean about Tom needing to learn "from the beasts which perish?"

For even further thought: As we have already mentioned, the themes of dirt, water, and cleansing are important to Kingsley. How does this passage add to those ideas?

Reading #6


Sir John Harthover (an unexpectedly sympathetic character) tracks Tom to Vendale; but all he finds are his clothes.

And then Kingsley, in his most Kingsley voice, has a few things to say about what we think is true, and what might be even more true.


over the hills and far away: out hunting (in this case, for Tom)

braces: suspenders

she was a tenant of his: Sir John owned her cottage

hearken: listen, pay attention

a bit of alder copse: a small group of alder trees

round the parotid region of his fauces: around his throat

external gills: gills (breathing organs) that are not inside (as in fishes), but outside. As an example of a creature with external gills, look for photographs of the Axolotl.

sucking: This appears to mean "in the larval stage," or "young"

eft: another word for a newt (a small amphibian). This becomes a running joke in the book, as Water-Baby Tom, with his external gills, is frequently mistaken for an eft.

until the coming of the Cocqcigrues (kok-se-groo): The Cocqcigrues are imaginary creatures, so waiting until they come means "forever." However, in this case, Kingsley seems to mean something more like "until the Judgement Day."

put it into spirits: preserved it in a jar

Aunt Agitate's Arguments, or Cousin Cramchild's Conversations: imaginary books, but based on certain real publications. See the note after this reading.

Queen of all the Fairies: Someone we have already met.


Part One

So Mr. Grimes came up to Harthover next day with a very sour face; but when he got there, Sir John was over the hills and far away; and Mr. Grimes had to sit in the outer servants' hall all day, and drink strong ale to wash away his sorrows; and they were washed away long before Sir John came back.

[Omission for length: Sir John and his hunting party (including a tracking dog) follow Tom's trail to the top of Lewthwaite Crag]

They could hardly believe that Tom would have gone so far; and when they looked at that awful cliff, they could never believe that he would have dared to face it. But if the dog said so, it must be true.

"Heaven forgive us!" said Sir John. "If we find him at all, we shall find him lying at the bottom." And he slapped his great hand upon his great thigh, and said-- "Who will go down over Lewthwaite Crag, and see if that boy is alive? Oh that I were twenty years younger, and I would go down myself!" And so he would have done, as well as any sweep in the county. Then he said-- "Twenty pounds to the man who brings me that boy alive!" and as was his way, what he said he meant.

Now among the lot was a little groom-boy, a very little groom indeed; and he was the same who had ridden up the court, and told Tom to come to the Hall; and he said-- "Twenty pounds or none, I will go down over Lewthwaite Crag, if it's only for the poor boy's sake. For he was as civil a spoken little chap as ever climbed a flue."

So down over Lewthwaite Crag he went: a very smart groom he was at the top, and a very shabby one at the bottom; for he tore his gaiters, and he tore his breeches, and he tore his jacket, and he burst his braces, and he burst his boots, and he lost his hat, and what was worst of all, he lost his gold shirt pin, which he prized very much[omission]; but he never saw anything of Tom.

Part Two

And all the while Sir John and the rest were riding round, full three miles to the right, and back again, to get into Vendale, and to the foot of the crag.

When they came to the old dame's school, all the children came out to see. And the old dame came out too; and when she saw Sir John, she curtsied very low, for she was a tenant of his.

"Well, dame, and how are you?" said Sir John.

"Blessings on you as broad as your back, Harthover," says she--she didn't call him Sir John, but only Harthover, for that is the fashion in the North country-- "and welcome into Vendale: but you're no hunting the fox this time of the year?"

"I am hunting, and strange game too," said he.

"Blessings on your heart, and what makes you look so sad the morn?"

"I'm looking for a lost child, a chimney-sweep, that is run away."

"Oh, Harthover, Harthover," says she, "ye were always a just man and a merciful; and ye'll no harm the poor little lad if I give you tidings of him?"

"Not I, not I, dame. I'm afraid we hunted him out of the house all on a miserable mistake, and the hound has brought him to the top of Lewthwaite Crag, and----"

Whereat the old dame broke out crying, without letting him finish his story. "So he told me the truth after all, poor little dear! Ah, first thoughts are best, and a body's heart'll guide them right, if they will but hearken to it." And then she told Sir John all.

"Bring the dog here, and lay him on," said Sir John, without another word, and he set his teeth very hard. And the dog opened at once; and went away at the back of the cottage, over the road, and over the meadow, and through a bit of alder copse; and there, upon an alder stump, they saw Tom's clothes lying. And then they knew as much about it all as there was any need to know.

Part Three

And Tom?

Ah, now comes the most wonderful part of this wonderful story. Tom, when he woke, for of course he woke--children always wake after they have slept exactly as long as is good for them--found himself swimming about in the stream, being about four inches, or--that I may be accurate--3.87902 inches long, and having round the parotid region of his fauces a set of external gills (I hope you understand all the big words) just like those of a sucking eft, which he mistook for a lace frill, till he pulled at them, found he hurt himself, and made up his mind that they were part of himself, and best left alone.

In fact, the fairies had turned him into a water-baby.

Part Four: Kingsley Speaks to the Reader

A water-baby? You never heard of a water-baby. Perhaps not. That is the very reason why this story was written. There are a great many things in the world which you never heard of; and a great many more which nobody ever heard of; and a great many things, too, which nobody will ever hear of, at least until the coming of the Cocqcigrues, when man shall be the measure of all things.

"But there are no such things as water-babies."

How do you know that? Have you been there to see? And if you had been there to see, and had seen none, that would not prove that there were none. And no one has a right to say that no water-babies exist, till they have seen no water-babies existing; which is quite a different thing, mind, from not seeing water-babies; and a thing nobody ever did, or perhaps ever will do.

"But surely if there were water-babies, somebody would have caught one at least?"

Well. How do you know that somebody has not?

"But they would have put it into spirits, or into the Illustrated News, or [sent it to the experts] to see what they would say about it."

Ah, my dear little man! that does not follow at all, as you will see before the end of the story.

"But a water-baby is contrary to nature."

Well, but, my dear little man, you must learn to talk about such things, when you grow older, in a very different way from that. You must not talk about "ain't" and "can't" when you speak of this great wonderful world round you, of which the wisest man knows only the very smallest corner, and is, as the great Sir Isaac Newton said, only a child picking up pebbles on the shore of a boundless ocean.

You must not say that this cannot be, or that that is contrary to nature. You do not know what Nature is, or what she can do; and nobody knows; not even Sir Roderick Murchison, or Professor Owen, or Professor Sedgwick, or Professor Huxley, or Mr. Darwin, or Professor Faraday, or Mr. Grove, or any other of the great men whom good boys are taught to respect. They are very wise men; and you must listen respectfully to all they say: but even if they should say, which I am sure they never would, "That cannot exist. That is contrary to nature," you must wait a little, and see; for perhaps even they may be wrong. It is only children who read Aunt Agitate's Arguments, or Cousin Cramchild's Conversations; or lads who go to popular lectures, and see a man pointing at a few big ugly pictures on the wall, or making nasty smells with bottles and squirts, for an hour or two, and calling that anatomy or chemistry--who talk about "cannot exist," and "contrary to nature." Wise men are afraid to say that there is anything contrary to nature, except what is contrary to mathematical truth; for two and two cannot make five, and two straight lines cannot join twice, and a part cannot be as great as the whole, and so on (at least, so it seems at present): but the wiser men are, the less they talk about "cannot." That is a very rash, dangerous word, that "cannot"; and if people use it too often, the Queen of all the Fairies, who makes the clouds thunder and the fleas bite, and takes just as much trouble about one as about the other, is apt to astonish them suddenly by showing them, that though they say she cannot, yet she can, and what is more, will, whether they approve or not.

[omission for length]

Narration and Discussion

Imagine that you are 3.87902 inches tall (that's 9.8527108 cm). Do you have any figures or dolls about that size to help visualize this? What would things around you look like if you were that small?

Have you ever believed in something, and been told that that idea is just a story, or just for babies? How did you respond?

Aunt Agitate and Cousin Cramchild (some thoughts for adult readers)

In Kingsley's preface to his 1869 book Madam How and Lady Why, he recalls his childhood reading:

When I was your age, there were no such children's books as there are now. Those which we had were few and dull, and the pictures in them ugly and mean: while you have your choice of books without number, clear, amusing, and attractive, as well as really instructive, on subjects which were only talked of fifty years ago by a few learned people, and very little understood even by them.

However, even as an adult, Kingsley was frustrated by many things being written in children's books and periodicals (magazines were popular with both adults and children, and, in fact, The Water-Babies first appeared as a serial story in Macmillan's Magazine). One of his particular annoyances was a common message that certain things "cannot exist" or are "contrary to nature"; he believed that such well-intended talk killed children's sense of wonder.

Those adults reading this who have also read C. S. Lewis's The Abolition of Man will understand the word "debunkers" to mean people, especially those considered intellectuals, who ridicule anything that doesn't fit their particular "scientific" narrative, and "scientific" there must be in quotes because, from Kingsley's point of view, those people are actually anti-science, in the same way as Lewis's "debunkers" are anti-thought (along with some other antis). Lewis's Narnia books are not suggested until AO Year Four, but some students in Year Three may already be familiar with examples of "debunking" that come up throughout those books--the clue is to listen for people who say that certain beliefs are only for babies, or (horrors) just fairy-tales.

Just before writing The Water-Babies, Charles Kingsley seems to have read one such "debunking" children's book, called Peter Parley's Annual, and that title likely inspired his imaginary (and alliterative) works Aunt Agitate's Arguments and Cousin Cramchild's Conversations. We might even look further into those names: to agitate something is to stir it up, disturb it, and perhaps Kingsley felt that Aunt Agitate should stop stirring up the mud in the pond (displacing the water-babies as she did so). Similarly, Cousin Cramchild needed to leave aside the dry "facts"; to stop trying to replace suns with lamps, and the magic songs of creation with mere animal roaring.

Now the trouble with trying to make yourself stupider than you really are is that you very often succeed. Uncle Andrew did. He soon did hear nothing but roaring in Aslan's song. Soon he couldn't have heard anything else even if he had wanted to. (C. S. Lewis, The Magician's Nephew)

These two unhelpful relations will be mentioned again several times in this story. As you read the chapters in between, though, remember the two of them standing off to the side, ready to jeer. Consider what Kingsley was trying to say to them, and (more importantly) to his younger readers who hadn't yet (he hoped) been infected by that kind of empty thinking.

Reading #7


In this ending to Kingsley's second chapter, we see the grief of Tom's friends, even those he had just met. (But Tom himself is just fine.)


Pterodactyl: one of the first prehistoric reptiles to be discovered

dragonfly: a fast-flying, long-bodied insect, which we will hear more about soon

Cousin Cramchild: see notes in Reading #6. Cousin Cramchild has a slight resemblance to Cousin Eustace in The Voyage of the Dawn-Treader.

Proteus: or Olm; a cave-dwelling salamander with external gills

Syllis: a kind of marine worm

Distoma: also called the liver fluke; a parasite with an unusual form of reproduction

caddis: or caddisfly, a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults (i.e. the young live in the water and the adults live on land). Their larvae are known for their unusual skill in house building.

In the brook there were caddis houses. Rush had discovered these first. They were tiny cases, not much more than an inch long, and about as big around as a soda straw. They were constructed of bits of twig and shell, tiny pebbles, and choke cherry pits, all held together with a miraculous, silky cement that was created by the retiring little architect who lived inside. (Elizabeth Enright, The Four-Story Mistake)

dalesmen: the inhabitants of the valley

the dame: the schoolmistress

stir abroad: leave the house

an old song: This poem by Charles Kingsley is also called "Young and Old." It is included in the AO Year One Poetry Anthology.

grig: This can mean either an eel or a cricket; at any rate, something small and lively.


M. Quatrefages: Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau was a French biologist.


Part One: More Conversation Between Kingsley and the Reader

And therefore it is, that there are dozens and hundreds of things in the world which we should certainly have said were contrary to nature, if we did not see them going on under our eyes all day long. If people had never seen little seeds grow into great plants and trees, of quite different shape from themselves, and these trees again produce fresh seeds, to grow into fresh trees, they would have said, "The thing cannot be; it is contrary to nature." And they would have been quite as right in saying so, as in saying that most other things cannot be.

[omission for length]

Did not learned men, too, hold, till within the last twenty-five years, that a flying dragon was an impossible monster? And do we not now know that there are hundreds of them found [as fossils] up and down the world? People call them Pterodactyls: but that is only because they are ashamed to call them flying dragons, after denying so long that flying dragons could exist [omission]. Wise men know that their business is to examine what is, and not to settle what is not. They know that there are elephants [though they have never seen one]; they know that there have been flying dragons; and the wiser they are, the less inclined they will be to say that there are no water-babies.

No water-babies, indeed? Why, wise men of old said that everything on earth had its double in the water; and you may see that that is, if not quite true, still quite as true as most other theories which you are likely to hear for many a day. There are land-babies--then why not water-babies? Are there not water-rats, water-flies, water-crickets, water-crabs, water-tortoises, water-scorpions, water-tigers and water-hogs, water-cats and water-dogs, sea-lions and sea-bears, sea-horses and sea-elephants, sea-mice and sea-urchins, sea-razors and sea-pens, sea-combs and sea-fans; and of plants, are there not water-grass, and water-crowfoot, water-milfoil, and so on, without end?

"But all these things are only nicknames; the water things are not really akin to the land things."

That's not always true. They are, in millions of cases, not only of the same family, but actually the same individual creatures. Do not even you know that a green drake, and an alder-fly, and a dragonfly, live under water till they change their skins, just as Tom changed his? And if a water animal can continually change into a land animal, why should not a land animal sometimes change into a water animal? Don't be put down by any of Cousin Cramchild's arguments, but stand up to him like a man, and answer him (quite respectfully, of course) thus:--

If Cousin Cramchild says, that if there are water-babies, they must grow into water-men, ask him how he knows that they do not? and then, how he knows that they must, any more than the Proteus of the Adelsberg caverns grows into a perfect newt.

If he says that it is too strange a transformation for a land-baby to turn into a water-baby, ask him if he ever heard of the transformation of Syllis, or the Distomas, or the common jelly-fish, of which M. Quatrefages says excellently well--

Who would not exclaim that a miracle had come to pass, if he saw a reptile come out of the egg dropped by the hen in his poultry-yard, and the reptile give birth at once to an indefinite number of fishes and birds? Yet the history of the jelly-fish is quite as wonderful as that would be.

Ask him if he knows about all this; and if he does not, tell him to go and look for himself; and advise him (very respectfully, of course) to settle no more what strange things cannot happen, till he has seen what strange things do happen every day.

[omission for length]

Does not each of us, in coming into this world, go through a transformation just as wonderful as that of a sea-egg, or a butterfly? and do not reason and analogy, as well as Scripture, tell us that that transformation is not the last? and that, though what we shall be, we know not, yet we are here but as the crawling caterpillar, and shall be hereafter as the perfect fly. The old Greeks [omission] saw as much as that two thousand years ago; and I care very little for Cousin Cramchild, if he sees even less than they. And so forth, and so forth, till he is quite cross.

And then tell him that if there are no water-babies, at least there ought to be; and that, at least, he cannot answer [omission].

Am I in earnest? Oh dear no! Don't you know that this is a fairy tale, and all fun and pretense; and that you are not to believe one word of it, even if it is true?

Part Two

But at all events, so it happened to Tom.

And, therefore, the keeper, and the groom, and Sir John made a great mistake, and were very unhappy (Sir John at least) without any reason, when they found [something] in the water, and said it was Tom's body, and that he had been drowned. They were utterly mistaken. Tom was quite alive; and cleaner, and merrier, than he ever had been. The fairies had washed him, you see, in the swift river, so thoroughly, that not only his dirt, but his whole husk and shell had been washed quite off him, and the pretty little real Tom was washed out of the inside of it, and swam away, as a caddis does when its case of stones and silk is bored through, and away it goes on its back, paddling to the shore, there to split its skin, and fly away as a caperer, on four fawn-coloured wings, with long legs and horns. They are foolish fellows, the caperers, and fly into the candle at night, if you leave the door open. We will hope Tom will be wiser, now he has got safe out of his sooty old shell.

But good Sir John did not understand all this [omission]; and he took it into his head that Tom was drowned. When they looked into the empty pockets of his shell, and found no jewels there, nor money--nothing but three marbles, and a brass button with a string to it--then Sir John did something as like crying as ever he did in his life, and blamed himself more bitterly than he need have done. So he cried, and the groom-boy cried, and the huntsman cried, and the dame cried, and the little girl cried, and the dairymaid cried, and the old nurse cried (for it was somewhat her fault), and My Lady cried, for though people have wigs, that is no reason why they should not have hearts.

But the keeper did not cry, though he had been so good-natured to Tom the morning before; for he was so dried up with running after poachers, that you could no more get tears out of him than milk out of leather.

And Grimes did not cry, for Sir John gave him ten pounds, and he drank it all in a week.

Sir John sent, far and wide, to find Tom's father and mother: but [that was impossible]. And the little girl would not play with her dolls for a whole week, and never forgot poor little Tom.

Part Three

And soon My Lady put a pretty little tombstone over Tom's shell in the little churchyard in Vendale, where the old dalesmen all sleep side by side between the limestone crags. And the dame decked it with garlands every Sunday, till she grew so old that she could not stir abroad; then the little children decked it for her. And always she sang an old old song, as she sat spinning what she called her wedding-dress.

The children could not understand it, but they liked it none the less for that; for it was very sweet, and very sad; and that was enough for them. And these are the words of it:--

When all the world is young, lad,
      And all the trees are green;
And every goose a swan, lad,
      And every lass a queen;
Then hey for boot and horse, lad,
      And round the world away;
Young blood must have its course, lad,
      And every dog his day.

When all the world is old, lad,
      And all the trees are brown;
And all the sport is stale, lad,
      And all the wheels run down;
Creep home, and take your place there,
      The spent and maimed among:
God grant you find one face there,
      You loved when all was young.

Those are the words: but they are only the body of it: the soul of the song was the dear old woman's sweet face, and sweet voice, and the sweet old air to which she sang; and that, alas! one cannot put on paper. And at last she grew so stiff and lame, that the angels were forced to carry her; and they helped her on with her wedding-dress, and carried her up over Harthover Fells, and a long way beyond that too; and there was a new schoolmistress in Vendale [omission].

And all the while Tom was swimming about in the river, with a pretty little lace-collar of gills about his neck, as lively as a grig, and as clean as a fresh-run salmon.


Now if you don't like my story, then go to the schoolroom and learn your multiplication-table, and see if you like that better. Some people, no doubt, would do so. So much the better for us, if not for them. It takes all sorts, they say, to make a world.

Narration and Discussion

Why do you think an important man like Sir John tried so hard to find Tom when he was lost, and even to track down his parents?

What do you think the old woman's song was about?

Why does Kingsley say that it is really no more miraculous for Tom to turn into a water-baby, than it is for many of the everyday "miracles" of nature to happen? What amazing things in the natural world have you seen or read about?

Poetic Interlude #3

The verse for the next chapter comes from the end of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. [This bit of the poem is also found in AO's poetry anthology for Year One students.]

He prayeth well who loveth well
Both men and bird and beast;
He prayeth best who loveth best
All things both great and small:
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.

Reading #8


Tom, for the first time in his life, is clean, seems to have enough to eat, and nobody is beating him or making him climb chimneys. But his new life in the stream is not entirely happy.


amphibious: explained in the text

sand-pipe: also called the sandy-cased caddis

spoon-bonnet: a hat popular in the 1860's, with a wide front brim

one wonderful little fellow: the rotifer Limnias melicerta. (You can find photos of this intrepid builder online.)

a certain old lady who is coming: We will hear more about her soon.

howked: to howk usually means to dig something out of a hole, so possibly Tom was trying to pry the creatures out of their places. It could also mean "to hit," which would also make sense.


There was a wise man once: the poet William Wordsworth


Part One: In which Kingsley continues to converse with the reader

Tom was now quite amphibious.

You do not know what that means?

You had better, then, ask the nearest [school-teacher], who may possibly answer you smartly enough, thus--

"Amphibious. Adjective, derived from two Greek words, amphi, a fish, and bios, a beast. An animal supposed by our ignorant ancestors to be compounded of a fish and a beast; which therefore, like the hippopotamus, can't live on the land, and dies in the water."

However that may be, Tom was amphibious: and what is better still, he was clean. For the first time in his life, he felt how comfortable it was to have nothing on him but himself. But he only enjoyed it: he did not know it, or think about it; just as you enjoy life and health, and yet never think about being alive and healthy; and may it be long before you have to think about it!

He did not remember having ever been dirty. Indeed, he did not remember any of his old troubles, being tired, or hungry, or beaten, or sent up dark chimneys. Since that sweet sleep, he had forgotten all about his master, and Harthover Place, and the little white girl, and in a word, all that had happened to him when he lived before; and what was best of all, he had forgotten all the bad words which he had learned from Grimes, and the rude boys with whom he used to play. That is not strange: for you know, when you came into this world, and became a land-baby, you remembered nothing. So why should he, when he became a water-baby?

Then have [we] lived before?

My dear child, who can tell? One can only tell that, by remembering something which happened where we lived before; and as we remember nothing, we know nothing about it; and no book, and no man, can never tell us certainly.

There was a wise man once, a very wise man, and a very good man, who wrote a poem about the feelings which some children have about having lived before; and this is what he said--

Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting;
The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star,
            Hath had elsewhere its setting
                        And cometh from afar;
            Not in entire forgetfulness,
            And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
                        From God, who is our home . . .

There, you can know no more than that. But if I was you, I would believe that. For then the great fairy Science, who is likely to be queen of all the fairies for many a year to come, can only do you good, and never do you harm; and instead of fancying, with some people, that your body makes your soul, as if a steam-engine could make its own coke; or, with some people, that your soul has nothing to do with your body, but is only stuck into it like a pin into a pin-cushion, to fall out with the first shake—you will believe the one true,














and   on-all-accounts-to-be-received doctrine   of   this   wonderful   fairy   tale;   which   is,   that   your soul   makes   your   body,   just   as   a   snail   makes   his   shell.

For the rest, it is enough for us to be sure that whether or not we lived before, we shall live again; though not, I hope, as poor little [omission] Tom did. For he went downward into the water; but we, I hope, shall go upward to a very different place.

Part Two

But Tom was very happy in the water. He had been sadly overworked in the land-world; and so now, to make up for that, he had nothing but holidays in the water-world for a long, long time to come. He had nothing to do now but enjoy himself, and look at all the pretty things which are to be seen in the cool clear water-world, where the sun is never too hot, and the frost is never too cold.

And what did he live on?

Water-cresses, perhaps; or perhaps water-gruel, and water-milk; too many land-babies do so likewise. But we do not know what one-tenth of the water-things eat; so we are not answerable for the water-babies.

Sometimes he went along the smooth gravel water-ways, looking at the crickets which ran in and out among the stones, as rabbits do on land; or he climbed over the ledges of rock, and saw the sand-pipes hanging in thousands, with every one of them a pretty little head and legs peeping out; or he went into a still corner, and watched the caddises eating dead sticks as greedily as you would eat plum-pudding, and building their houses with silk and glue. Very fanciful ladies they were; none of them would keep to the same materials for a day. One would begin with some pebbles; then she would stick on a piece of green wood; then she found a shell, and stuck it on too; and the poor shell was alive, and did not like at all being taken to build houses with: but the caddis did not let him have any voice in the matter, being rude and selfish, as vain people are apt to be; then she stuck on a piece of rotten wood, then a very smart pink stone, and so on, till she was patched all over [omission]. Then she found a long straw, five times as long as herself, and said, "Hurrah! my sister has a tail, and I'll have one too"; and she stuck it on her back, and marched about with it quite proud, though it was very inconvenient indeed. And, at that, tails became all the fashion among the caddis-baits in that pool, as they were at the end of the Long Pond last May, and they all toddled about with long straws sticking out behind, getting between each other's legs, and tumbling over each other, and looking so ridiculous, that Tom laughed at them till he cried, as we did. But they were quite right, you know; for people must always follow the fashion, even if it be spoon-bonnets.

Then sometimes he came to a deep still reach; and there he saw the water-forests. They would have looked to you only little weeds: but Tom, you must remember, was so little that everything looked a hundred times as big to him as it does to you, just as things do to a minnow, who sees and catches the little water-creatures which you can only see in a microscope.

And in the water-forest he saw the water-monkeys and water-squirrels (they had all six legs, though; everything almost has six legs in the water, except efts and water-babies); and nimbly enough they ran among the branches. There were water-flowers there too, in thousands; and Tom tried to pick them: but as soon as he touched them, they drew themselves in and turned into knots of jelly; and then Tom saw that they were all alive--bells, and stars, and wheels, and flowers, of all beautiful shapes and colours; and all alive and busy, just as Tom was. So now he found that there was a great deal more in the world than he had fancied at first sight.

There was one wonderful little fellow, too, who peeped out of the top of a house built of round bricks. He had two big wheels, and one little one, all over teeth, spinning round and round like the wheels in a thrashing-machine; and Tom stood and stared at him, to see what he was going to make with his machinery. And what do you think he was doing? Brick-making. With his two big wheels he swept together all the mud which floated in the water: all that was nice in it he put into his stomach and ate; and all the mud he put into the little wheel on his breast, which really was a round hole set with teeth; and there he spun it into a neat hard round brick; and then he took it and stuck it on the top of his house-wall, and set to work to make another. Now was not he a clever little fellow?

Tom thought so; but when he wanted to talk to him the brick-maker was much too busy and proud of his work to take notice of him.

Part Three

Now you must know that all the things under the water talk; only not such a language as ours, but such as horses, and dogs, and cows, and birds talk to each other; and Tom soon learned to understand them and talk to them; so that he might have had very pleasant company if he had only been a good boy. But I am sorry to say, he was too like some other little boys, very fond of hunting and tormenting creatures for mere sport. Some people say that boys cannot help it; that it is nature, and only a proof that we are all originally descended from beasts of prey.

But whether it is nature or not, little boys can help it, and must help it. For if they have naughty, low, mischievous tricks in their nature, as monkeys have, that is no reason why they should give way to those tricks like monkeys, who know no better. And therefore they must not torment dumb creatures; for if they do, a certain old lady who is coming will surely give them exactly what they deserve.

But Tom did not know that; and he pecked and howked the poor water-things about sadly, till they were all afraid of him, and got out of his way, or crept into their shells; so he had no one to speak to or play with. The water-fairies, of course, were very sorry to see him so unhappy, and longed to take him, and tell him how naughty he was, and teach him to be good, and to play and romp with him too: but they had been forbidden to do that. Tom had to learn his lesson for himself by sound and sharp experience, as many another foolish person has to do, though there may be many a kind heart yearning over them all the while, and longing to teach them what they can only teach themselves.

Narration and Discussion

Why does Tom not remember his previous life on land? Is that a good thing?

Describe some of Tom's new acquaintances. (Remember that he is less than four inches tall, so even small creatures would seem large to him.)

For further thought: As mentioned before, Kingsley was very interested in the idea of things as they were at their beginning; and the creatures Tom meets during his early days as a Water-Baby are very simple, even primitive ones. He watches them, but they don't talk back to him, or at least not much--Kingsley says that's because Tom teases them and they are afraid of him. The fairies are not allowed to advise him on how to do better (and hopefully move up the underwater social scale a bit). Do you think he will be able to figure it out on his own?

For even further thought: Kingsley says, "For then you will believe the one true doctrine of this wonderful fairy tale; which is, that your soul makes your body, just as a snail makes his shell." What do you think he means?

Reading #9


After a few false starts, Tom begins to make some underwater friends.


caddis: see the notes in Reading #8

hover: This is an unusual noun that may refer specifically to a group of trout, gathered together motionlessly in a river or stream. Since the next thing that happens is that a trout floushes out at Tom, this definition appears to be the correct one.

floush or flouse: splash

a very ugly dirty creature: a dragonfly larva. (Fun fact: dragonfly larvae can take up to five years to reach adulthood.)

split: part of the metamorphosis into an adult dragonfly

gauze: a thin, translucent material

dock: a wild plant that can be eaten or used for medicine

hare and hounds: a racing game

alderflies: a type of fly that lives near water

caperer: a large sedge fly, enjoyed by trout

duns: mayflies in the last stage before full maturity

spinners: "spent" mayflies that have returned to the water to die

claret: dark red (like wine)


Blondin: Charles Blondin, a French tightrope walker

Léotard: Jules Léotard, a French trapeze artist


Part One

At last one day [Tom] found a caddis, and wanted it to peep out of its house: but its house-door was shut. He had never seen a caddis with a house-door before: so what must he do, the meddlesome little fellow, but pull it open, to see what the poor lady was doing inside. What a shame! How should you like to have any one breaking your bedroom-door in, to see how you looked when you were in bed?

So Tom broke to pieces the door, which was the prettiest little grating of silk, stuck all over with shining bits of crystal; and when he looked in, the caddis poked out her head, and it had turned into just the shape of a bird's. But when Tom spoke to her she could not answer; for her mouth and face were tight tied up in a new night-cap of neat pink skin.

However, if she didn't answer, all the other caddises did; for they held up their hands and shrieked [omission]: "Oh, you nasty horrid boy; there you are at it again! And she had just laid herself up for a fortnight's sleep, and then she would have come out with such beautiful wings, and flown about, and laid such lots of eggs: and now you have broken her door, and she can't mend it because her mouth is tied up for a fortnight, and she will die. Who sent you here to worry us out of our lives?"

So Tom swam away. He was very much ashamed of himself, and felt all the naughtier; as little boys do when they have done wrong and won't say so.

Part Two

Then he came to a pool full of little trout, and began tormenting them, and trying to catch them: but they slipped through his fingers, and jumped clean out of the water in their fright. But as Tom chased them, he came close to a great dark hover under an alder root, and out floushed a huge old brown trout ten times as big as he was, and ran right against him, and knocked all the breath out of his body; and I don't know which was the more frightened of the two.

Part Three

Then he went on sulky and lonely, as he deserved to be; and under a bank he saw a very ugly dirty creature sitting, about half as big as himself, which had six legs, and a big stomach, and a most ridiculous head with two great eyes and a face just like a donkey's.

"Oh," said Tom, "you are an ugly fellow to be sure!" and he began making faces at him; and put his nose close to him, and halloed at him, like a very rude boy. When, hey presto! all the thing's donkey-face came off in a moment, and out popped a long arm with a pair of pincers at the end of it, and caught Tom by the nose. It did not hurt him much; but it held him quite tight.

"Yah, ah! Oh, let me go!" cried Tom.

"Then let me go," said the creature. "I want to be quiet. I want to split."

Tom promised to let him alone, and he let go.

"Why do you want to split?" said Tom.

"Because my brothers and sisters have all split, and turned into beautiful creatures with wings; and I want to split too. Don't speak to me. I am sure I shall split. I will split!"

Tom stood still, and watched him. And he swelled himself, and puffed, and stretched himself out stiff, and at last--crack, puff, bang--he opened all down his back, and then up to the top of his head.

And out of his inside came the most slender, elegant, soft creature, as soft and smooth as Tom: but very pale and weak, like a little child who has been ill a long time in a dark room. It moved its legs very feebly; and looked about it half ashamed, like a girl when she goes for the first time into a ballroom; and then it began walking slowly up a grass stem to the top of the water.

Tom was so astonished that he never said a word: but he stared with all his eyes. And he went up to the top of the water too, and peeped out to see what would happen.

And as the creature sat in the warm bright sun, a wonderful change came over it. It grew strong and firm; the most lovely colours began to show on its body, blue and yellow and black, spots and bars and rings; out of its back rose four great wings of bright brown gauze; and its eyes grew so large that they filled all its head, and shone like ten thousand diamonds.

"Oh, you beautiful creature!" said Tom; and he put out his hand to catch it.

But the thing whirred up into the air, and hung poised on its wings a moment, and then settled down again by Tom quite fearless.

"No!" it said, "you cannot catch me. I am a dragonfly now, the king of all the flies; and I shall dance in the sunshine, and hawk over the river, and catch gnats, and have a beautiful wife like myself. I know what I shall do. Hurrah!" And he flew away into the air, and began catching gnats.

"Oh! come back, come back," cried Tom, "you beautiful creature. I have no one to play with, and I am so lonely here. If you will but come back I will never try to catch you."

"I don't care whether you do or not," said the dragonfly; "for you can't. But when I have had my dinner, and looked a little about this pretty place, I will come back, and have a little chat about all I have seen in my travels. Why, what a huge tree this is! and what huge leaves on it!" It was only a big dock [plant]; but you know the dragonfly had never seen any but little water-trees; starwort, and milfoil, and water-crowfoot, and such like; so it did look very big to him. Besides, he was very short-sighted, as all dragonflies are; and never could see a yard before his nose; any more than a great many other folks, who are not half as handsome as he.

Part Four

The dragonfly did come back, and chatted away with Tom. He was a little conceited about his fine colours and his large wings; but you know, he had been a poor dirty ugly creature all his life before; so there were great excuses for him. He was very fond of talking about all the wonderful things he saw in the trees and the meadows; and Tom liked to listen to him, for he had forgotten all about them. So in a little while they became great friends.

And I am very glad to say, that Tom learned such a lesson that day, that he did not torment creatures for a long time after. And then the caddises grew quite tame, and used to tell him strange stories about the way they built their houses, and changed their skins, and turned at last into winged flies; till Tom began to long to change his skin, and have wings like them some day.

And the trout and he made it up (for trout very soon forget if they have been frightened and hurt). So Tom used to play with them at hare and hounds, and great fun they had; and he used to try to leap out of the water, head over heels, as they did before a shower came on; but somehow he never could manage it.

He liked most, though, to see them rising at the flies, as they sailed round and round under the shadow of the great oak, where the beetles fell flop into the water, and the green caterpillars let themselves down from the boughs by silk ropes for no reason at all; and then changed their foolish minds for no reason at all either; and hauled themselves up again into the tree, rolling up the rope in a ball between their paws; which is a very clever rope dancer's trick; and neither Blondin nor Léotard could do it: but why they should take so much trouble about it no one can tell; for they cannot get their living, as Blondin and Léotard do, by trying to break their necks on a string.

And very often Tom caught them just as they touched the water; and caught the alderflies, and the caperers, and the cock-tailed duns and spinners, yellow and brown, claret and grey, and gave them to his friends the trout.

Perhaps he was not quite kind to the flies [by doing that]; but one must do a good turn to one's friends when one can.

Narration and Discussion

How does Tom get to be friends with the dragonfly?

What have you seen (yourself) in nature that makes you wish you could imitate it?

Reading #10


Tom meets up with small and large creatures, and begins to wonder if there is more to life than just swimming (or flying).


a new sort: Probably a mayfly, since they are notably short-lived as adults.

cock (verb): to tilt up, in an impudent way. We do not use this word much now as a verb, but it does come up in the adjective "cocky."

impudence: boldness, cheek

conjurors: magicians

Handsome is that handsome does: what one does is more important than one's appearance. (More commonly, "handsome is as handsome does.")

eft: a newt. See note in Reading #7.

bogies: spooky things

freshet: a surge of water from the sea, often after a rain

grinning like a Cheshire cat: this phrase dates back to the 18th century, but Kingsley's use of it here may have inspired Lewis Carroll's Cheshire Cat in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).

out of the sea: probably refers to the North Sea

sentimental: emotional and sad

burn: brook, stream


Part One

And at last he gave up catching even the flies; for he made acquaintance with one by accident and found him a very merry little fellow. And this was the way it happened; and it is all quite true.

He was basking at the top of the water one hot day in July, catching duns and feeding the trout, when he saw a new sort, a dark grey little fellow with a brown head. He was a very little fellow indeed: but he made the most of himself, as people ought to do. He cocked up his head, and he cocked up his wings, and he cocked up his tail, and he cocked up the two whisks at his tail-end, and, in short, he looked the cockiest little man of all little men. And so he proved to be; for instead of getting away, he hopped upon Tom's finger, and sat there [as bold as you please]; and he cried out in the tiniest, shrillest, squeakiest little voice you ever heard,

"Much obliged to you, indeed; but I don't want it yet."

"Want what?" said Tom, quite taken aback by his impudence.

"Your leg, which you are kind enough to hold out for me to sit on. I must just go and see after my wife for a few minutes. Dear me! what a troublesome business a family is!" (though the idle little rogue did nothing at all, but left his poor wife to lay all the eggs by herself). "When I come back, I shall be glad of it, if you'll be so good as to keep it sticking out just so"; and off he flew.

Tom thought him a very cool sort of personage; and still more so, when, in five minutes, he came back, and said-- "Ah, you were tired waiting? Well, your other leg will do as well."

And he popped himself down on Tom's knee, and began chatting away in his squeaking voice.

"So you live under the water? It's a low place. I lived there for some time; and was very shabby and dirty. But I didn't choose that that should last. So I turned respectable, and came up to the top, and put on this grey suit. It's a very business-like suit, you think, don't you?"

"Very neat and quiet indeed," said Tom.

"Yes, one must be quiet and neat and respectable, and all that sort of thing for a little, when one becomes a family man. But I'm tired of it, that's the truth. I've done quite enough business, I consider, in the last week, to last me my life. So I shall put on a ball dress, and [go out and see the world, and have a dance or two]. Why shouldn't one be jolly if one can?"

"And what will become of your wife?"

"Oh! she is a [dull creature], and thinks about nothing but eggs. If she chooses to come, why she may; and if not, why I go without her;--and here I go."

And, as he spoke, he turned quite pale, and then quite white.

"Why, you're ill!" said Tom. But he did not answer.

"You're dead," said Tom, looking at him as he stood on his knee as white as a ghost.

"No, I ain't!" answered a little squeaking voice over his head. "This is me up here, in my ball-dress; and that's my skin. Ha, ha! you could not do such a trick as that!"

And no more Tom could, nor Houdin, nor Robin, nor Frikell, all the conjurors in the world. For the little rogue had jumped clean out of his own skin, and left it standing on Tom's knee: eyes, wings, legs, tail, exactly as if it had been alive.

"Ha, ha!" he said, and he jerked and skipped up and down, never stopping an instant [omission]. "Ain't I a pretty fellow now?"

And so he was; for his body was white, and his tail orange, and his eyes all the colours of a peacock's tail. And what was the oddest of all, the whisks at the end of his tail had grown five times as long as they were before.

"Ah!" said he, "now I will see the [world]. My living won't cost me much, for I have no mouth, you see, and no inside; so I can never be hungry nor have the stomach-ache neither." No more he had. He had grown as dry and hard and empty as a quill, as such silly shallow-hearted fellows deserve to grow.

But, instead of being ashamed of his emptiness, he was quite proud of it, as a good many fine gentlemen are, and began flirting and flipping up and down, and singing--

My wife shall dance, and I shall sing,
So merrily pass the day;
For I hold it for quite the wisest thing,
To drive dull care away.

And he danced up and down for three days and three nights, till he grew so tired, that he tumbled into the water, and floated down. But what became of him Tom never knew, and he himself never minded; for Tom heard him singing to the last, as he floated down--

To drive dull care away-ay-ay!

And if he did not care, why nobody else cared either.

Part Two

But one day Tom had a new adventure. He was sitting on a water-lily leaf, he and his friend the dragonfly, watching the gnats dance. The dragonfly had eaten as many as he wanted, and was sitting quite still and sleepy, for it was very hot and bright. The gnats (who did not care the least for their poor brothers' death) danced a foot over his head quite happily, and a large black fly settled within an inch of his nose, and began washing his own face and combing his hair with his paws: but the dragonfly never stirred, and kept on chatting to Tom about the times when he lived under the water.

Suddenly, Tom heard the strangest noise up the stream; cooing, and grunting, and whining, and squeaking [omission]. He looked up the water, and there he saw a sight as strange as the noise; a great ball rolling over and over down the stream, seeming one moment of soft brown fur, and the next of shining glass: and yet it was not a ball; for sometimes it broke up and streamed away in pieces, and then it joined again; and all the while the noise came out of it louder and louder.

Tom asked the dragonfly what it could be: but, of course, with his short sight, he could not even see it, though it was not ten yards away.

So he took the neatest little header into the water, and started off to see for himself; and, when he came near, the ball turned out to be four or five beautiful creatures, many times larger than Tom, who were swimming about, and rolling, and diving, and twisting, and wrestling, and cuddling, and kissing, and biting, and scratching, in the most charming fashion that ever was seen. And if you don't believe me, you may go to the Zoological Gardens [omission], and then say, if otters at play in the water are not the merriest, lithest, gracefullest creatures you ever saw.

But, when the biggest of them saw Tom, she darted out from the rest, and cried in the water-language sharply enough, "Quick, children, here is something to eat, indeed!" and came at poor Tom, showing such a wicked pair of eyes, and such a set of sharp teeth in a grinning mouth, that Tom, who had thought her very handsome, said to himself, "Handsome is that handsome does," and slipped in between the water-lily roots as fast as he could, and then turned round and made faces at her.

"Come out," said the wicked old otter, "or it will be worse for you."

But Tom looked at her from between two thick roots, and shook them with all his might, making horrible faces all the while, just as he used to grin through the railings at the old women, when he lived before. It was not quite well bred, no doubt; but you know, Tom had not finished his education yet.

"Come away, children," said the otter in disgust, "it is not worth eating, after all. It is only a nasty eft, which nothing eats, not even those vulgar pike in the pond."

"I am not an eft!" said Tom; "efts have tails."

"You are an eft," said the otter, very positively; "I see your two hands quite plain, and I know you have a tail."

"I tell you I have not," said Tom. "Look here!" and he turned his pretty little self quite round; and, sure enough, he had no more tail than you.

The otter might have got out of it by saying that Tom was a frog: but, like a great many other people, when she had once said a thing, she stood to it, right or wrong; so she answered: "I say you are an eft, and therefore you are, and not fit food for gentlefolk like me and my children. You may stay here till the salmon eat you (she knew the salmon would not, but she wanted to frighten poor Tom). Ha! ha! they will eat you, and we will eat them"; and the otter laughed such a wicked cruel laugh--as you may hear them do sometimes; and the first time that you hear it you will probably think it is bogies.

"What are salmon?" asked Tom.

"Fish, you eft, great fish, nice fish to eat. They are the lords of the fish, and we are lords of the salmon"; and she laughed again. "We hunt them up and down the pools, and drive them up into a corner, the silly things; they are so proud, and bully the little trout, and the minnows, till they see us coming, and then they are so meek all at once; and we catch them, but we disdain to eat them all; we just bite out their soft throats and suck their sweet juice--Oh, so good!"--(and she licked her wicked lips)-- "and then throw them away, and go and catch another. They are coming soon, children, coming soon; I can smell the rain coming up off the sea, and then hurrah for a freshet, and salmon, and plenty of eating all day long." And the otter grew so proud that she turned head over heels twice, and then stood upright half out of the water, grinning like a Cheshire cat.

"And where do they come from?" asked Tom, who kept himself very close, for he was considerably frightened.

"Out of the sea, eft, the great wide sea, where they might stay and be safe if they liked. But out of the sea the silly things come, into the great river down below, and we come up to watch for them; and when they go down again we go down and follow them. And there we fish for the bass and the pollock, and have jolly days along the shore, and toss and roll in the breakers, and sleep snug in the warm dry crags. Ah, that is a merry life too, children, if it were not for those horrid men."

"What are men?" asked Tom; but somehow he seemed to know before he asked.

"Two-legged things, eft: and, now I come to look at you, they are actually something like you, if you had not a tail" (she was determined that Tom should have a tail), "only a great deal bigger, worse luck for us; and they catch the fish with hooks and lines, which get into our feet sometimes, and set pots along the rocks to catch lobsters. They speared my poor dear husband as he went out to find something for me to eat. I was laid up among the crags then, and we were very low in the world, for the sea was so rough that no fish would come in shore. But they speared him, poor fellow, and I saw them carrying him away upon a pole. Ah, he lost his life for your sakes, my children, poor dear obedient creature that he was."

And the otter grew so sentimental (for otters can be very sentimental when they choose, like a good many people who are both cruel and greedy, and no good to anybody at all) that she sailed solemnly away down the burn, and Tom saw her no more for that time. And lucky it was for her that she did so; for no sooner was she gone, than down the bank came seven little rough terrier dogs, snuffing and yapping, and grubbing and splashing, in full cry after the otter.

Tom hid among the water-lilies till [the dogs] were gone; for he could not guess that they were the water-fairies come to help him. But he could not help thinking of what the otter had said about the great river and the broad sea.

And, as he thought, he longed to go and see them. He could not tell why; but the more he thought, the more he grew discontented with the narrow little stream in which he lived, and all his companions there; and wanted to get out into the wide wide world, and enjoy all the wonderful sights of which he was sure it was full.

Narration and Discussion

How does Tom know he is not an eft? What does he think he is?

Kingsley says about the mayfly, "And if he did not care, why nobody else cared either." Do you think he is right? Does that remind you of any other stories?

Reading #11


Discontented with life in the stream, Tom sets off for bigger places.


stupid: sleepy and slow. See Special Vocabulary Notes in the Introduction for more discussion of this word.

omnium-gatherums: a collection of miscellaneous things

strids: passages

cataracts: waterfalls

breakers: waves


Part One

[So Tom] set off to go down the stream. But the stream was very low; and when he came to the shallows he could not keep under water, for there was no water left to keep under. So the sun burned his back and made him sick; and he went back again and lay quiet in the pool for a whole week more.

And then, on the evening of a very hot day, he saw a sight.

He had been [feeling] very stupid all day, and so had the trout; for they would not move an inch to take a fly, though there were thousands on the water, but lay dozing at the bottom under the shade of the stones; and Tom lay dozing too, and was glad to cuddle their smooth cool sides, for the water was quite warm and unpleasant.

But toward evening it grew suddenly dark, and Tom looked up and saw a blanket of black clouds lying right across the valley above his head, resting on the crags right and left. He felt not quite frightened, but very still; for everything was still. There was not a whisper of wind, nor a chirp of a bird to be heard; and next a few great drops of rain fell plop into the water, and one hit Tom on the nose, and made him pop his head down quickly enough.

And then the thunder roared, and the lightning flashed, and leapt across Vendale and back again, from cloud to cloud, and cliff to cliff, till the very rocks in the stream seemed to shake: and Tom looked up at it through the water, and thought it the finest thing he ever saw in his life.

But out of the water he dared not put his head; for the rain came down by bucketsful, and the hail hammered like shot on the stream, and churned it into foam; and soon the stream rose, and rushed down, higher and higher, and fouler and fouler, full of beetles, and sticks; and straws, and worms, and addle-eggs, and wood-lice, and leeches, and odds and ends, and omnium-gatherums, and this, that, and the other, enough to fill nine museums. Tom could hardly stand against the stream, and hid behind a rock. But the trout did not; for out they rushed from among the stones, and began gobbling the beetles and leeches in the most greedy and quarrelsome way, and swimming about with great worms hanging out of their mouths, tugging and kicking to get them away from each other.

Part Two

And now, by the flashes of the lightning, Tom saw a new sight--all the bottom of the stream alive with great eels, turning and twisting along, all downstream and away. They had been hiding for weeks past in the cracks of the rocks, and in burrows in the mud; and Tom had hardly ever seen them, except now and then at night: but now they were all out, and went hurrying past him so fiercely and wildly that he was quite frightened. And as they hurried past he could hear them say to each other, "We must run, we must run. What a jolly thunderstorm! Down to the sea, down to the sea!"

And then the otter came by with all her brood, twining and sweeping along as fast as the eels themselves; and she spied Tom as she came by, and said: "Now is your time, eft, if you want to see the world. Come along, children, never mind those nasty eels: we shall breakfast on salmon tomorrow. Down to the sea, down to the sea!"

Then came a flash brighter than all the rest, and by the light of it--in the thousandth part of a second they were gone again--but he had seen them, he was certain of it--three beautiful little white girls, with their arms twined round each other's necks, floating down the torrent, as they sang, "Down to the sea, down to the sea!"

"Oh stay! Wait for me!" cried Tom; but they were gone: yet he could hear their voices clear and sweet through the roar of thunder and water and wind, singing as they died away, "Down to the sea!"

"Down to the sea?" said Tom; "everything is going to the sea, and I will go too. Good-bye, trout." But the trout were so busy gobbling worms that they never turned to answer him; so that Tom was spared the pain of bidding them farewell.

And now, down the rushing stream, guided by the bright flashes of the storm; past tall birch-fringed rocks, which shone out one moment as clear as day, and the next were dark as night; past dark hovers under swirling banks, from which great trout rushed out on Tom, thinking him to be good to eat, and turned back sulkily, for the fairies sent them home again with a tremendous scolding, for daring to meddle with a water-baby; on through narrow strids and roaring cataracts, where Tom was deafened and blinded for a moment by the rushing waters; along deep reaches, where the white water-lilies tossed and flapped beneath the wind and hail; past sleeping villages; under dark bridge-arches, and away and away to the sea. And Tom could not stop, and did not care to stop; he would see the great world below, and the salmon, and the breakers, and the wide wide sea.

Part Three

And when the daylight came, Tom found himself out in the river [omission] at Harthover [omission]. A full hundred yards broad it was, sliding on from broad pool to broad shallow, and broad shallow to broad pool, over great fields of shingle, under oak and ash coverts, past low cliffs of sandstone, past green meadows, and fair parks, and a great house of grey stone, and brown moors above, and here and there against the sky the smoking chimney of a colliery.

But Tom thought nothing about what the river was like. All his fancy was, to get down to the wide wide sea. And after a while he came to a place where the river spread out into broad still shallow reaches, so wide that little Tom, as he put his head out of the water, could hardly see across.

And there he stopped. He got a little frightened. "This must be the sea," he thought. "What a wide place it is! If I go on into it I shall surely lose my way, or some strange thing will bite me. I will stop here and look out for the otter, or the eels, or someone to tell me where I shall go."

So he went back a little way, and crept into a crack of the rock, just where the river opened out into the wide shallows, and watched for someone to tell him his way: but the otter and the eels were gone on, miles and miles down the stream.

There he waited, and slept too, for he was quite tired with his night's journey.

Narration and Discussion

Could you draw an imaginary map of where Tom has gone? Where is it that he wants to go next?

Do you think it will be a good plan for Tom to search for the otter?

Reading #12


Tom chats with a salmon, and discovers that there are other beings like himself.


amber hue: golden colour

ten times as big as the biggest trout, and a hundred times as big as Tom: If Tom is about four inches tall, and we're comparing by length, that would make this fish four hundred inches long, or 33 1/3 feet, or over 11 yards (10 m) long. Do salmon really grow that long? Chinook/King salmon are the largest salmon, and they grow up to 58 inches (1.5 m) long. What about the trout? The kind of brook trout Tom knew probably weighed no more than 5 pounds and would be about 15 inches (38 cm) long. Conclusion? It seems that Kingsley was exaggerating a bit for effect. But anyway, it was a big fish.

sculling: propelling himself along as if he were rowing a boat

stake-nets: exactly as they sound: nets put up on rows of stakes, to catch fish

degraded: brought down low

little folks: This usually refers to children, but in this case it seems to mean people of lower social status than the "great folks."


Part One

When Tom woke, the stream was clearing to a beautiful amber hue, though it was still very high. And after a while he saw a sight which made him jump up; for he knew in a moment it was one of the things which he had come to look for.

Such a fish! ten times as big as the biggest trout, and a hundred times as big as Tom, sculling up the stream past him, as easily as Tom had sculled down. Such a fish! shining silver from head to tail, and here and there a crimson dot; with a grand hooked nose and grand curling lip, and a grand bright eye, looking round him as proudly as a king, and surveying the water right and left as if all belonged to him. Surely he must be the salmon, the king of all the fish.

Tom was so frightened that he longed to creep into a hole; but he need not have been; for salmon are all true gentlemen, and, like true gentlemen, they look noble and proud enough, and yet, like true gentlemen, they never harm or quarrel with any one, but go about their own business, and leave rude fellows to themselves.

The salmon looked at him full in the face, and then went on without minding him, with a swish or two of his tail which made the stream boil again. And in a few minutes came another, and then four or five, and so on; and all passed Tom, rushing and plunging up the cataract with strong strokes of their silver tails, now and then leaping clean out of water and up over a rock, shining gloriously for a moment in the bright sun; while Tom was so delighted that he could have watched them all day long.

Part Two

And at last one came up bigger than all the rest; but he came slowly, and stopped, and looked back, and seemed very anxious and busy. And Tom saw that he was helping another salmon, an especially handsome one, who had not a single spot upon it, but was clothed in pure silver from nose to tail.

"My dear," said the great fish to his companion, "you really look dreadfully tired, and you must not over-exert yourself at first. Do rest yourself behind this rock;" and he shoved her gently with his nose, to the rock where Tom sat.

You must know that this was the salmon's wife. For salmon, like other true gentlemen, always choose their lady, and love her, and are true to her, and take care of her and work for her, and fight for her, as every true gentleman ought; and are not like vulgar chub and roach and pike, who have no high feelings, and take no care of their wives.

Then he saw Tom, and looked at him very fiercely one moment, as if he was going to bite him. "What do you want here?" he said, very fiercely.

"Oh, don't hurt me!" cried Tom. "I only want to look at you; you are so handsome."

"Ah!" said the salmon, very stately but very civilly. "I really beg your pardon; I see what you are, my little dear. I have met one or two creatures like you before, and found them very agreeable and well-behaved. Indeed, one of them showed me a great kindness lately, which I hope to be able to repay. I hope we shall not be in your way here. As soon as this lady is rested, we shall proceed on our journey."

What a well-bred old salmon he was!

"So you have seen things like me before?" asked Tom.

"Several times, my dear. Indeed, it was only last night that one at the river's mouth came and warned me and my wife of some new stake-nets which had got into the stream, I cannot tell how, since last winter, and showed us the way round them, in the most charmingly obliging way."

"So there are babies in the sea?" cried Tom, and clapped his little hands. "Then I shall have someone to play with there? How delightful!"

"Were there no babies up this stream?" asked the lady salmon.

"No! and I grew so lonely. I thought I saw three last night; but they were gone in an instant, down to the sea. So I went too; for I had nothing to play with but caddises and dragonflies and trout."

"Ugh!" cried the lady, "what low company!"

"My dear, if he has been in low company, he has certainly not learnt their low manners," said the salmon.

"No, indeed, poor little dear: but how sad for him to live among such people as caddises, who have actually six legs, the nasty things; and dragonflies, too! why they are not even good to eat; for I tried them once, and they are all hard and empty; and, as for trout, everyone knows what they are." Whereon she curled up her lip, and her husband curled up his too, and looked dreadfully scornful [omission].

"Why do you dislike the trout so?" asked Tom.

"My dear, we do not even mention them, if we can help it; for I am sorry to say they are relations of ours who do us no credit. A great many years ago they were just like us: but they were so lazy, and cowardly, and greedy, that instead of going down to the sea every year to see the world and grow strong and fat, they chose to stay and poke about in the little streams and eat worms and grubs; and they are very properly punished for it; for they have grown ugly and brown and spotted and small; and are actually so degraded in their tastes, that they will eat our children."

"And then they pretend to scrape acquaintance with us again," said the lady. "Why, I have actually known one of them propose to a lady salmon, the impudent little creature."

"I should hope," said the gentleman, "that there are very few ladies of our race who would degrade themselves by listening to such a creature for an instant. If I saw such a thing happen, I should consider it my duty to put them both to death upon the spot." So the old salmon said [omission]; and what is more, he would have done it too. For you must know, no enemies are so bitter against each other as those who are of the same race; and a salmon looks on a trout as some great folks look on some little folks, as something just too much like himself to be tolerated.

Narration and Discussion

Why is Tom so excited to hear that the salmon has met creatures like him before?

According to the salmon, what happened to their relations?

For further thought: It seems likely that Kingsley's young listener might have wondered about that last sentence, and Kingsley might have responded with a "Don't worry about it until you're older." But what do you think he meant?

Poetic Interlude #4

The verses for this chapter are from the poem "The Tables Turned," by William Wordsworth.

Sweet is the lore which Nature brings;
Our meddling intellect
Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things
We murder to dissect.

Enough of science and of art:
Close up these barren leaves;
Come forth, and bring with you a heart
That watches and receives.

Reading #13


Tom suddenly encounters an old enemy.


snipe: a wading bird

torch: a light carried in the hand. Since this was long before battery-powered flashlights (torches) were available, this torch might have been a lantern on a pole, or even something simpler like a long stick with burning material on one end.

muckle fellow: large one

made himself easy: relaxed

hawser: a rope for towing or tying up a ship


Part One

So the salmon went up, after Tom had warned them of the wicked old otter; and Tom went down, but slowly and cautiously, coasting along the shore. He was many days about it, for it was many miles down to the sea; and perhaps he would never have found his way, if the fairies had not guided him, without his seeing their fair faces, or feeling their gentle hands.

And, as he went, he had a very strange adventure. It was a clear still September night, and the moon shone so brightly down through the water, that he could not sleep, though he shut his eyes as tight as possible.

So at last he came up to the top, and sat upon a little point of rock, and looked up at the broad yellow moon, and wondered what she was, and thought that she looked at him.

And he watched the moonlight on the rippling river, and the black heads of the firs, and the silver-frosted lawns, and listened to the owl's hoot, and the snipe's bleat, and the fox's bark, and the otter's laugh; and smelt the soft perfume of the birches, and the wafts of heather honey off the grouse moor far above; and felt very happy, though he could not well tell why. You, of course, would have been very cold sitting there on a September night, without the least bit of clothes on your wet back; but Tom was a water-baby, and therefore felt cold no more than a fish.

Suddenly, he saw a beautiful sight. A bright red light moved along the river-side, and threw down into the water a long tap-root of flame. Tom, curious little rogue that he was, must needs go and see what it was; so he swam to the shore, and met the light as it stopped over a shallow run at the edge of a low rock. And there, underneath the light, lay five or six great salmon, looking up at the flame with their great goggle eyes, and wagging their tails, as if they were very much pleased at it.

Tom came to the top, to look at this wonderful light nearer, and made a splash. And he heard a voice say: "There was a fish rose."

He did not know what the words meant: but he seemed to know the sound of them, and to know the voice which spoke them; and he saw on the bank three great two-legged creatures, one of whom held the light, flaring and sputtering, and another a long pole. And he knew that they were men, and was frightened, and crept into a hole in the rock, from which he could see what went on.

Part Two

The man with the torch bent down over the water, and looked earnestly in; and then he said: "Tak' that muckle fellow, lad; he's ower fifteen punds; and haud your hand steady."

Tom felt that there was some danger coming, and longed to warn the foolish salmon, who kept staring up at the light as if he was bewitched. But before he could make up his mind, down came the pole through the water; there was a fearful splash and struggle, and Tom saw that the poor salmon was speared right through, and was lifted out of the water.

And then, from behind, there sprang on these three men three other men; and there were shouts, and blows, and words which Tom recollected to have heard before; and he shuddered and turned sick at them now, for he felt somehow that they were strange, and ugly, and wrong, and horrible.

And it all began to come back to him. They were men; and they were fighting; savage, desperate, up-and-down fighting, such as Tom had seen too many times before. And he stopped his little ears, and longed to swim away; and was very glad that he was a water-baby, and had nothing to do any more with horrid dirty men, with foul clothes on their backs, and foul words on their lips; but he dared not stir out of his hole: while the rock shook over his head with the trampling and struggling of the keepers and the poachers.

All of a sudden there was a tremendous splash, and a frightful flash, and a hissing, and all was still. For into the water, close to Tom, fell one of the men; he who held the light in his hand. Into the swift river he sank, and rolled over and over in the current. Tom heard the men above run along, seemingly looking for him; but he drifted down into the deep hole below, and there lay quite still, and they could not find him.

Tom waited a long time, till all was quiet; and then he peeped out, and saw the man lying. At last he screwed up his courage and swam down to him. "Perhaps," he thought, "the water has made him fall asleep, as it did me."

Then he went nearer. He grew more and more curious, he could not tell why. He must go and look at him. He would go very quietly, of course; so he swam round and round him, closer and closer; and, as he did not stir, at last he came quite close and looked him in the face. The moon shone so bright that Tom could see every feature; and, as he saw, he recollected, bit by bit, it was his old master, Grimes.

Tom turned tail, and swam away as fast as he could.

"Oh dear me!" he thought, "now he will turn into a water-baby. What a nasty troublesome one he will be! And perhaps he will find me out, and beat me again."

So he went up the river again a little way, and lay there the rest of the night under an alder root; but, when morning came, he longed to go down again to the big pool, and see whether Mr. Grimes had turned into a water-baby yet. So he went very carefully, peeping round all the rocks, and hiding under all the roots.

Mr. Grimes lay there still; he had not turned into a water-baby.

Part Three

In the afternoon Tom went back again. He could not rest till he had found out what had become of Mr. Grimes. But this time Mr. Grimes was gone; and Tom made up his mind that he was turned into a water-baby.

He might have made himself easy, poor little man; Mr. Grimes did not turn into a water-baby, or anything like one at all. But he did not make himself easy; and a long time he was fearful lest he should meet Grimes suddenly in some deep pool. He could not know that the fairies had carried him away, and put him, where they put everything which falls into the water, exactly where it ought to be [omission].

Then Tom went on down [the river], for he was afraid of staying near Grimes; and as he went, all the vale looked sad. The red and yellow leaves showered down into the river; the flies and beetles were all dead and gone; the chill autumn fog lay low upon the hills, and sometimes spread itself so thickly on the river that he could not see his way. But he felt his way instead, following the flow of the stream, day after day, past great bridges, past boats and barges, past the great town, with its wharfs, and mills, and tall smoking chimneys, and ships which rode at anchor in the stream; and now and then he ran against their hawsers, and wondered what they were, and peeped out, and saw the sailors lounging on board smoking their pipes; and ducked under again, for he was terribly afraid of being caught by "man" and turned into a chimney-sweep once more.

He did not know that the fairies were close to him always, shutting the sailors' eyes lest they should see him, and turning him aside from millraces, and sewer-mouths, and all foul and dangerous things.

Narration and Discussion

What do you think has happened to Mr. Grimes?

Why do you think the vale suddenly "looked sad" after Tom's meeting with Grimes?

Reading #14


Tom meets many new creatures, including a somewhat-friendly lobster; but he is still longing to make contact with other water-babies.


buoy: a bright object that is anchored in water as a marker for ships, or to show danger

as if his veins had run champagne: as if his blood were full of soda bubbles

bass, mullet: sea fish

terns: sea birds, like gulls

sea-pie: a kind of magpie (bird)

turbot: a fish with a flat body

pollock: a fish in the cod family

purple sea-snails: probably the species Janthina janthina

a beautiful creature: Kingsley often keeps us guessing about the identity of his fish and fowl. Is this one possibly a lancetfish? Or a kind of eel with teeth?

barnacle: a shelled crustacean known for attaching itself to things (like boats)

Victoria Cross: a British medal for extreme bravery

breastbone: Children long ago used to make a kind of jumping toy out of a bone, wax and a stick; see Hans Christian Andersen's story "The Jumper."


Chesapeake (Bay): located on the east coast of the United States

Carolinas: the states of North and South Carolina, in the United States


Part One

Poor [Tom], it was a dreary journey for him; and more than once he longed to be back in Vendale, playing with the trout in the bright summer sun. But it could not be. What has been once can never come over again. And people can be little babies, even water-babies, only once in their lives.

Besides, people who make up their minds to go and see the world, as Tom did, must needs find it a weary journey. Lucky for them if they do not lose heart and stop half-way, instead of going on bravely to the end as Tom did [omission]. But Tom was always a brave, determined little [boy], who never knew when he was beaten; and on and on he held, till he saw a long way off the red buoy through the fog. And then he found, to his surprise, the stream turned round, and running up inland.

It was the tide, of course: but Tom knew nothing of the tide. He only knew that in a minute more the water, which had been fresh, turned salt all round him. And then there came a change over him. He felt as strong, and light, and fresh, as if his veins had run champagne; and gave, he did not know why, three skips out of the water, a yard high, and head over heels, just as the salmon do when they first touch the noble rich salt water, which, as some wise men tell us, is the mother of all living things.

He did not care now for the tide being against him. The red buoy was in sight, dancing in the open sea; and to the buoy he would go, and to it he went. He passed great shoals of bass and mullet, leaping and rushing in after the shrimps, but he never heeded them, or they him.

And once he passed a great black shining seal, who was coming in after the mullet. The seal put his head and shoulders out of water, and stared at him [omission]. And Tom, instead of being frightened, said, "How d'ye do, sir; what a beautiful place the sea is!" And the old seal, instead of trying to bite him, looked at him with his soft sleepy winking eyes, and said, "Good tide to you, my little man; are you looking for your brothers and sisters? I passed them all at play outside."

"Oh, then," said Tom, "I shall have playfellows at last," and he swam on to the buoy, and got upon it (for he was quite out of breath) and sat there, and looked round for water-babies: but there were none to be seen.

The sea-breeze came in freshly with the tide and blew the fog away; and the little waves danced for joy around the buoy, and the old buoy danced with them. The shadows of the clouds ran races over the bright blue bay, and yet never caught each other up; and the breakers plunged merrily upon the wide white sands, and jumped up over the rocks, to see what the green fields inside were like, and tumbled down and broke themselves all to pieces, and never minded it a bit, but mended themselves and jumped up again. And the terns hovered over Tom like huge white dragonflies with black heads, and the gulls laughed like girls at play, and the sea-pies, with their red bills and legs, flew to and fro from shore to shore, and whistled sweet and wild. And Tom looked and looked, and listened; and he would have been very happy, if he could only have seen the water-babies.

Part Two

Then when the tide turned, he left the buoy, and swam round and round in search of them: but in vain. Sometimes he thought he heard them laughing: but it was only the laughter of the ripples. And sometimes he thought he saw them at the bottom: but it was only white and pink shells.

And once he was sure he had found one, for he saw two bright eyes peeping out of the sand. So he dived down, and began scraping the sand away, and cried, "Don't hide; I do want someone to play with so much!" And out jumped a great turbot with his ugly eyes and mouth all awry, and flopped away along the bottom, knocking poor Tom over.

And he sat down at the bottom of the sea, and cried salt tears from sheer disappointment. To have come all this way, and faced so many dangers, and yet to find no water-babies! How hard! Well, it did seem hard: but people, even little babies, cannot have all they want without waiting for it, and working for it too, my little man, as you will find out some day.

Part Three

And Tom sat upon the buoy long days, long weeks, looking out to sea, and wondering when the water-babies would come back; and yet they never came. Then he began to ask all the strange things which came in out of the sea if they had seen any; and some said "Yes," and some said nothing at all. He asked the bass and the pollock; but they were so greedy after the shrimps that they did not care to answer him a word.

Then there came in a whole fleet of purple sea-snails, floating along, each on a sponge full of foam, and Tom said, "Where do you come from, you pretty creatures? and have you seen the water-babies?"

And the sea-snails answered, "Whence we come we know not; and whither we are going, who can tell? We float out our life in the mid-ocean, with the warm sunshine above our heads, and the warm gulf-stream below; and that is enough for us. Yes; perhaps we have seen the water-babies. We have seen many strange things as we sailed along." And they floated away, the [foolish] things, and all went ashore upon the sands.

Then there came in a great lazy sunfish, as big as a fat pig cut in half; and he seemed to have been cut in half too, and squeezed in a clothes-press till he was flat; but to all his big body and big fins he had only a little rabbit's mouth, no bigger than Tom's; and, when Tom questioned him, he answered in a little squeaky feeble voice: "I'm sure I don't know; I've lost my way. I meant to go to the Chesapeake, and I'm afraid I've got wrong somehow. Dear me! it was all by following that pleasant warm water. I'm sure I've lost my way." And, when Tom asked him again, he could only answer, "I've lost my way. Don't talk to me; I want to think."

But, like a good many other people, the more he tried to think the less he could think; and Tom saw him blundering about all day, till the coast-guardsmen saw his big fin above the water, and rowed out, and struck a boat-hook into him, and took him away. They took him up to the town and showed him for a penny a head, and made a good day's work of it. But of course Tom did not know that.

Then there came by a shoal of porpoises, rolling as they went--papas, and mammas, and little children--and all quite smooth and shiny, because the fairies French-polish them every morning; and they sighed so softly as they came by, that Tom took courage to speak to them: but all they answered was, "Hush, hush, hush"; for that was all they had learned to say.

[omission for length]

And then there came by a beautiful creature, like a ribbon of pure silver with a sharp head and very long teeth; but it seemed very sick and sad. Sometimes it rolled helpless on its side; and then it dashed away glittering like white fire; and then it lay sick again and motionless.

"Where do you come from?" asked Tom. "And why are you so sick and sad?"

"I come from the warm Carolinas, and the sandbanks fringed with pines; where the great owl-rays leap and flap, like giant bats, upon the tide. But I wandered north and north, upon the treacherous warm gulf-stream, till I met with the cold icebergs, afloat in the mid ocean. So I got tangled among the icebergs, and chilled with their frozen breath. But the water-babies helped me from among them, and set me free again. And now I am mending every day; but I am very sick and sad; and perhaps I shall never get home again to play with the owl-rays anymore."

"Oh!" cried Tom. "And you have seen water-babies? Have you seen any near here?"

"Yes; they helped me again last night, or I should have been eaten by a great black porpoise."

How vexatious! The water-babies close to him, and yet he could not find one.

Part Four

And then he left the buoy, and used to go along the sands and round the rocks, and come out in the night--like the forsaken Merman in [Matthew] Arnold's beautiful, beautiful poem, which you must learn by heart someday.

(The poem begins:

Come, dear children, let us away;
Down and away below!
Now my brothers call from the bay,
Now the great winds shoreward blow,
Now the salt tides seaward flow;
Now the wild white horses play,
Champ and chafe and toss in the spray.
Children dear, let us away!
This way, this way!)

[He would] sit upon a point of rock, among the shining seaweeds, in the low October tides, and cry and call for the water-babies; but he never heard a voice call in return. And at last, with his fretting and crying, he grew quite lean and thin.

But one day among the rocks he found a play-fellow. It was not a water-baby, alas! but it was a lobster; and a very distinguished lobster he was; for he had live barnacles on his claws, which is a great mark of distinction in lobsterdom, and no more to be bought for money than a good conscience or the Victoria Cross.

Tom had never seen a lobster before; and he was mightily taken with this one; for he thought him the most curious, odd, ridiculous creature he had ever seen; and there he was not far wrong; for all the ingenious men, and all the scientific men, and all the fanciful men, in the world [omission] could never invent, if all their wits were boiled into one, anything so curious, and so ridiculous, as a lobster.

He had one claw knobbed and the other jagged; and Tom delighted in watching him hold on to the seaweed with his knobbed claw, while he cut up salads with his jagged one, and then put them into his mouth, after smelling at them, like a monkey. And always the little barnacles threw out their casting-nets and swept the water, and came in for their share of whatever there was for dinner. But Tom was most astonished to see how he fired himself off--snap! Like the leap-frogs which you make out of a goose's breastbone. Certainly he took the most wonderful shots, and backwards, too. For, if he wanted to go into a narrow crack ten yards off, what do you think he did? If he had gone in head foremost, of course he could not have turned round. So he used to turn his tail to it, and lay his long horns, which carry his sixth sense in their tips (and nobody knows what that sixth sense is), straight down his back to guide him, and twist his eyes back till they almost came out of their sockets, and then made ready, present, fire, snap!--and away he went, pop into the hole; and peeped out and twiddled his whiskers, as much as to say, "You couldn't do that."

Tom asked him about water-babies. Yes, he said, he had seen them often. But he did not think much of them. They were meddlesome little creatures that went about helping fish and shells which got into scrapes. Well, for his part, [he said], he should be ashamed to be helped by little soft creatures that had not even a shell on their backs. He had lived quite long enough in the world to take care of himself.

He was a conceited fellow, the old lobster, and not very civil to Tom; and you will hear how he had to alter his mind before he was done, as conceited people generally have. But he was so funny, and Tom so lonely, that he could not quarrel with him; and they used to sit in holes in the rocks, and chat for hours.

Narration and Discussion

Why is Tom growing so thin?

Kingsley says about the sunfish: "But, like a good many other people, the more he tried to think the less he could think." What do you think?

Tell about your favourite character in this reading.

Reading #15


In this story we meet Ellie again (the little girl from Harthover Place), and her strange companion, Professor Ptthmllnsprts.

Special note on the omissions in this section
This particular part of The Water-Babies goes off on absurd and wordy tangents, especially in the parts about Professor Ptthmllnsprts (see note under People).

One hippopotami cannot get on a bus,
Because one hippopotami is two hippopotamus . . .
(Allan Sherman)

As Charles Kingsley himself might say, well, if you don't believe it, you may go and consult an unabridged edition of the book. In the other readings, I have noted [omissions] with brackets; but as they are so plentiful in this section, we will leave them aside to avoid tedium.


give the birds their Christmas dinner of crumbs: an old custom

The Triumph of Galatea: This was, originally, a fresco done by the famous artist Raphael; but Raphael's painting (or even smaller versions of it) is not quite as Ellie describes it. Perhaps her picture was by another artist who used the same theme and title.

hippopotamus major: There was a scientific debate going on in the early 1860's, that only human beings had a part of the brain called the hippocampus minor. Kingsley poked fun at this belief at a meeting of scientists, saying, "We were very much delighted, and I may say, quite interested, to find that we had all hippopotamuses in our brains." As he was also writing The Water-Babies at the time, he decided to incorporate the hippopotamus into the story.

corn: a painful kind of sore on the foot

prove a universal negative: A universal negative says that one kind of thing cannot be part of another group of things.

Aunt Agitate's Arguments: see previous readings

Holothurian: an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea. (The Professor is, obviously, showing off.)

Synapta: Synapta maculate, the snake sea cucumber. (Ditto.)

Cephalopod: the class of mollusks that includes the octopus and squid

put him in spirits: preserved his body in a jar of chemicals

they all went home: that is, back to Harthover Place


Professor Ptthmllnsprts: Many scholarly papers have been written about the identity of the Professor, which would have no doubt amused Charles Kingsley. He is, pretty much without doubt, a composite of two evolutionary experts; but at least one commentator has pointed out that Kingsley, also being a collector of natural oddities, might have seen himself in the character as well, at least in the idea of taking Tom home and making a pet of him. The professor's name is just a slurred version of "Put Them All In Spirits."

Wise old [Roman]: Decimus Junius Juvenalis. See note The Greatest Reverence, below.

The Greatest Reverence: A Note for the Adults

Kingsley writes, "There was a wise old [Roman] once, who said, 'Maxima debetur pueris reverentia,' [meaning] "The greatest reverence is due to children"; that is, that grown people should never say or do anything wrong before children, lest they should set them a bad example." Charlotte Mason also quotes this saying, although her word order is different:

Maxima reverentia debetur pueris has a wider meaning than it generally receives. We take it as meaning that we should not do or say anything unseemly before the young, but does it not also include a profound and reverent study of the properties and possibilities present in a child? (A Philosophy of Education)

Apparently by Mason's day, this ancient saying had become a tired educational cliché. However, like Kingsley, Mason liked to look below the surface of things, and she turned this idea on its head. She fully agreed that the Mr. Grimes of the world needed to be stopped; but she was even more concerned about teachers (and parents) who might undermine children's character by subtly misusing their authority, using tactics such as suggestion, influence, or even "love."

Professor Ptthmllnsprts would fall into that misuse-of-authority category as well, due to his refusal to admit that there might be water-babies--even when he had one right in front of him--to such an insignificant, uneducated being as a little girl. But he, at least, was eventually punished for his crimes.

Do we need to call in "a very terrible old fairy" to correct the rest of the mis-users? (Who may, in fact, be us?) Well, in fact, we have a number of better and more pleasant ways, and one of them is to study Charlotte Mason's books, and then to apply her methods to the raising and education of children--and other people--including ourselves.

The work of education is greatly simplified when we realize that children, apparently all children, want to know all human knowledge; they have an appetite for what is put before them, and, knowing this, our teaching becomes buoyant with the courage of our convictions. (A Philosophy of Education)



And about this time there happened to Tom a very strange and important adventure--so important, indeed, that he was very near never finding the water-babies at all; and I am sure you would have been sorry for that.

I hope that you have not forgotten the little white lady all this while.

At least, here she comes, looking like a clean white good little darling, as she always was, and always will be.

For it befell in the pleasant short December days, when the wind always blows from the south-west, till Old Father Christmas comes and spreads the great white table-cloth, ready for little boys and girls to give the birds their Christmas dinner of crumbs--it befell (to go on) in the pleasant December days, that Sir John hunting all day, and dining at five, fell asleep every evening, and snored so terribly that all the windows in Harthover shook, and the soot fell down the chimneys [omission].

[And the result of all that was that Sir John's wife, tired of the snoring and the soot, decided to take the children on a holiday to the seaside.]

Part One

Now it befell that, on the very shore, and over the very rocks, where Tom was sitting with his friend the lobster, there walked one day the little white lady, Ellie herself, and with her a very wise man indeed--Professor Ptthmllnsprts. He was, as I said, a very great naturalist, and he had come here to collect all the nasty things which he could find on the coast of England. He had met Sir John at Scarborough, or Fleetwood, or somewhere or other (if you don't care where, nobody else does), and had made acquaintance with him, and become very fond of his children.

So Ellie and he were walking on the rocks, and he was showing her about one in ten thousand of all the beautiful and curious things which are to be seen there. But little Ellie was not satisfied with them at all. She liked much better to play with live children, or even with dolls, which she could pretend were alive; and at last she said honestly, "I don't care about all these things, because they can't play with me, or talk to me. If there were little children now in the water, as there used to be, and I could see them, I should like that."

"Children in the water, you strange little duck?" said the professor.

"Yes," said Ellie. "I know there used to be children in the water, and mermaids too, and mermen. I saw them all in a picture at home, of a beautiful lady sailing in a car drawn by dolphins, and babies flying round her, and one sitting in her lap; and the mermaids swimming and playing, and the mermen trumpeting on conch-shells; and it is called 'The Triumph of Galatea'; and there is a burning mountain in the picture behind. It hangs on the great staircase, and I have looked at it ever since I was a baby, and dreamt about it a hundred times; and it is so beautiful, that it must be true."

But the professor had not the least notion of allowing that things were true, merely because people thought them beautiful. [He] held that no man was forced to believe anything to be true, but what he could see, hear, taste, or handle.

Sidebar: One Hippopotami

[The professor] held very strange theories about a good many things. He had even got up once at the British Association, and declared that apes had hippopotamus majors in their brains just as men have. Which was a shocking thing to say; for, if it were so, what would become of the faith, hope, and charity of immortal millions? You may think that there are other more important differences between you and an ape, such as being able to speak, and make machines, and know right from wrong, and say your prayers, and other little matters of that kind; but that is a child's fancy, my dear. Nothing is to be depended on but the great hippopotamus test.

If you have a hippopotamus major in your brain, you are no ape, though you had four hands, no feet, and were more apish than the apes of all aperies.

But if a hippopotamus major is ever discovered in one single ape's brain, nothing will save your great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-greater-greatest-grandmother from having been an ape too.

No, my dear little man; always remember that the one true, certain, final, and all-important difference between you and an ape is, that you have a hippopotamus major in your brain, and it has none; and that, therefore, to discover one in its brain will be a very wrong and dangerous thing, at which everyone will be very much shocked, as we may suppose they were at the professor.--Though really, after all, it don't much matter; because--as Lord Dundreary and others would put it--nobody but men have hippopotamuses in their brains; so, if a hippopotamus was discovered in an ape's brain, why it would not be one, you know, but something else.

[So the professor had written a paper proving that] there were not, never had been, and could not be, any rational or half-rational beings except men, anywhere, anywhen, or anyhow. And he had to get up very early in the morning to prove that, and to eat his breakfast overnight; but he did it, at least to his own satisfaction. From all which you may guess that the professor was not the least of little Ellie's opinion. So he gave her a succinct compendium of his famous paper at the British Association, in a form suited for the youthful mind. But [omission] instead of being convinced by Professor Ptthmllnsprts' arguments, she only asked the same question over again.

"But why are there not water-babies?"

I trust and hope that it was because the professor trod at that moment on the edge of a very sharp mussel, and hurt one of his corns sadly, that he answered quite sharply, forgetting that he was a scientific man, and therefore ought to have known that he couldn't know; and that he was a logician, and therefore ought to have known that he could not prove a universal negative--I say, I trust and hope it was because the mussel hurt his corn, that the professor answered quite sharply:

"Because there ain't."

Which was not even good English, my dear little boy; for, as you must know from Aunt Agitate's Arguments, the professor ought to have said, if he was so angry as to say anything of the kind--Because there are not: or are none: or are none of them; or (if he had been reading Aunt Agitate too) because they do not exist.

Part Two

And he groped with his net under the weeds so violently, that, as it befell, he caught poor little Tom. He felt the net very heavy; and lifted it out quickly, with Tom all entangled in the meshes.

"Dear me!" he cried. "What a large pink Holothurian; with hands, too! It must be connected with Synapta." And he took him out.

"It has actually eyes" he cried. "Why, it must be a Cephalopod! This is most extraordinary!"

"No, I ain't!" cried Tom, as loud as he could; for he did not like to be called bad names.

"It is a water-baby!" cried Ellie; and of course it was.

"Water-fiddlesticks, my dear!" said the professor; and he turned away sharply. But there was no denying it. It was a water-baby: and he had said a moment ago that there were none. What was he to do?

He would have liked, of course, to have taken Tom home in a bucket. He would not have put him in spirits. Of course not. He would have kept him alive, and petted him (for he was a very kind old gentleman), and written a book about him, and given him two long names, of which the first would have said a little about Tom, and the second all about himself. But--what would all the learned men say to him after his speech at the British Association? And what would Ellie say, after what he had just told her?

There was a wise old [Roman] once, who said, "Maxima debetur pueris reverentia," [meaning] "The greatest reverence is due to children"; that is, that grown people should never say or do anything wrong before children, lest they should set them a bad example. But some people, and I am afraid the professor was one of them, interpret that in a strange, curious, one-sided, left-handed, topsy-turvy, inside-out, behind-before fashion; for they make it mean, that you must show your respect for children, by never confessing yourself in the wrong to them, even if you know that you are so, lest they should lose confidence in their elders.

Now, if the professor had said to Ellie, "Yes, my darling, it is a water-baby, and a very wonderful thing it is; and it shows how little I know of the wonders of nature, in spite of forty years' honest labour. I was just telling you that there could be no such creatures; and, behold! here is one come to confound my conceit and show me that Nature can do, and has done, beyond all that man's poor fancy can imagine. So, let us thank the Maker, and Inspirer, and Lord of Nature for all His wonderful and glorious works, and try and find out something about this one"; --I think that, if the professor had said that, little Ellie would have believed him more firmly, and respected him more deeply, and loved him better, than ever she had done before.

But he was of a different opinion. He hesitated a moment. He longed to keep Tom, and yet he half wished he never had caught him; and at last he quite longed to get rid of him. So he turned away and poked Tom with his finger, for want of anything better to do; and said carelessly, "My dear little maid, you must have dreamt of water-babies last night, your head is so full of them."

Part Three

Now Tom had been in the most horrible and unspeakable fright all the while; and had kept as quiet as he could, though he was called a Holothurian and a Cephalopod; for it was fixed in his little head that if a man with clothes on caught him, he might put clothes on him too, and make a dirty black chimney-sweep of him again. But, when the professor poked him, it was more than he could bear; and, between fright and rage, he [fought back] as valiantly as a mouse in a corner, and bit the professor's finger till it bled.

"Oh! ah! yah!" cried he; and glad of an excuse to be rid of Tom, dropped him on to the seaweed, and thence he dived into the water and was gone in a moment.

"But it was a water-baby, and I heard it speak!" cried Ellie. "Ah, it is gone!" And she jumped down off the rock to try and catch Tom before he slipped into the sea.

Too late! and what was worse, as she sprang down, she slipped, and fell some six feet, with her head on a sharp rock, and lay quite still.

The professor picked her up, and tried to waken her, and called to her, and cried over her, for he loved her very much: but she would not waken at all. So he took her up in his arms and carried her to her governess, and they all went home; and little Ellie was put to bed, and lay there quite still; only now and then she woke up and called out about the water-baby. But no one knew what she meant, and the professor did not tell, for he was ashamed to tell.

And, after a week, one moonlight night, the fairies came flying in at the window and brought her such a pretty pair of wings that she could not help putting them on; and she flew with them out of the window, and over the land, and over the sea, and up through the clouds, and nobody heard or saw anything of her for a very long while.

Editor's Note: Right now our readers are sitting in shock, as Kingsley appears to have killed off yet another major character; and he then continues his absurdities about Professor Ptthmllnsprts, although we are no longer in the mood to laugh at them. However, we will see Ellie again, and honestly quite soon; so bear with us while we finish off the tale of the professor (abbreviated for everyone's sake).

Part Four: The Punishment of Professor Ptthmllnsprts

And this is why they say that no one has ever yet seen a water-baby. For my part, I believe that the naturalists get dozens of them when they are out dredging; but they say nothing about them, and throw them overboard again, for fear of spoiling their theories.

But, you see the professor was found out, as everyone is in due time. A very terrible old fairy found the professor out and took him in hand very severely. But she says she is always most severe with the best people, because there is most chance of curing them. So she took the poor professor in hand: and because he was not content with things as they are, she filled his head with things as they are not, to try if he would like them better; and because he did not choose to believe in a water-baby when he saw it, she made him believe in worse things than water-babies--
      in unicorns,
      dog-headed men,
      three-headed dogs,
      three-bodied geryons,
and other pleasant creatures, which folks think never existed yet, and which folks hope never will exist, though they know nothing about the matter, and never will; and these creatures so upset, terrified, flustered, aggravated, confused, astounded, horrified, and totally flabbergasted the poor professor that the doctors said that he was out of his wits for three months; and perhaps they were right, as they are now and then.

But he became ever after a sadder and a wiser man; which is a very good thing to become, my dear little boy, even though one has to pay a heavy price for the blessing.

Narration and Discussion

Why didn't the professor want to admit that he was looking at a real-live water-baby?

Do you think his punishment was appropriate?

For further thought: Why do you think Kingsley chose the verse he did to begin this chapter?

Poetic Interlude #5

The verse for this chapter come from Wordsworth's poem "Ode to Duty." After you have read the next few readings, come back and look at the lines Kingsley chose. Can you guess who he might be describing? ("Benignant" means kindly.)

Stern Lawgiver! yet thou dost wear
The Godhead's most benignant grace;
Nor know we anything so fair
As is the smile upon thy face:
Flowers laugh before thee on their beds
And fragrance in thy footing treads;
Thou dost preserve the stars from wrong;
And the most ancient heavens, through Thee, are fresh and strong.

Reading #16


Tom does his first unselfish deed--and suddenly finds that he is not alone after all.


three-fathom water: Three fathoms are equivalent to 18 feet (5.48 m).

prawn: a small crustacean, similar to a shrimp

wrasses: a family of brightly-coloured fish

withe (or withy): willow stem

in the lock-up: in jail

lobster pot: lobster trap

the otter: See Reading #11

Dr. Dulcimer's famous suburban establishment . . . : an (imaginary) private school


Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid: A character we have not met yet.

the old fairy with the birch rod: See above.

Polonius: a counsellor to the king in Shakespeare's play Hamlet

Jack Tars: sailors


Plymouth: a port city in Devon (the area where Kingsley grew up)

the Mewstone: a small, uninhabited island near Plymouth



But what became of little Tom?

He slipped away off the rocks into the water, as I said before. But he could not help thinking of little Ellie. He did not remember who she was; but he knew that she was a little girl, though she was a hundred times as big as he [omission]. He thought about her all that day, and longed to have had her to play with; but he had very soon to think of something else. And here is the account of what happened to him, as it was published next morning in the Waterproof Gazette, on the finest watered paper, for the use of the great fairy, Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid, who reads the news very carefully every morning, and especially the police cases, as you will hear very soon.

Part One

[Tom] was going along the rocks in three-fathom water, watching the pollock catch prawns, and the wrasses nibble barnacles off the rocks, shells and all, when he saw a round cage of green withes; and inside it, looking very much ashamed of himself, sat his friend the lobster, twiddling his horns, instead of thumbs.

"What, have you been naughty, and have they put you in the lock-up?" asked Tom.

The lobster felt a little indignant at such a notion, but he was too much depressed in spirits to argue; so he only said, "I can't get out."

"Why did you get in?"

"After that nasty piece of dead fish." He had thought it looked and smelt very nice when he was outside, and so it did, for a lobster; but now he turned round and abused it because he was angry with himself.

"Where did you get in?"

"Through that round hole at the top."

"Then why don't you get out through it?"

"Because I can't." And the lobster twiddled his horns more fiercely than ever, but he was forced to confess. "I have jumped upwards, downwards, backwards, and sideways, at least four thousand times; and I can't get out. I always get up underneath there, and can't find the hole."

Tom looked at the trap, and having more wit than the lobster, he saw plainly enough what was the matter; as you may if you will look at a lobster pot.

"Stop a bit," said Tom. "Turn your tail up to me, and I'll pull you through hind-foremost, and then you won't stick in the spikes."

But the lobster was so [foolish] and clumsy that he couldn't hit the hole.

Tom reached and clawed down the hole after him, till he caught hold of him; and then, as was to be expected, the clumsy lobster pulled him in head foremost.

"Hullo! here is a pretty business," said Tom. "Now take your great claws, and break the points off those spikes, and then we shall both get out easily."

"Dear me, I never thought of that," said the lobster; "and after all the experience of life that I have had!" You see, experience is of very little good unless a man, or a lobster, has wit enough to make use of it. For a good many people, like old Polonius, have seen all the world, and yet remain little better than children after all.

But they had not got half the spikes away when they saw a great dark cloud over them: and lo, and behold, it was the otter.

How she did grin and grin when she saw Tom. "Yar!" said she, "you little meddlesome wretch, I have you now! I will serve you out for telling the salmon where I was!" And she crawled all over the pot to get in.

Tom was horribly frightened, and still more frightened when she found the hole in the top, and squeezed herself right down through it, all eyes and teeth. But no sooner was her head inside than valiant Mr. Lobster caught her by the nose and held on. And there they were all three in the pot, rolling over and over, and very tight packing it was. And the lobster tore at the otter, and the otter tore at the lobster, and both squeezed and thumped poor Tom till he had no breath left in his body; and I don't know what would have happened to him if he had not at last got on the otter's back, and safe out of the hole.

He was right glad when he got out: but he would not desert his friend who had saved him; and the first time he saw his tail uppermost he caught hold of it, and pulled with all his might.

But the lobster would not let go.

"Come along," said Tom; "don't you see she is dead?" And so she was, quite drowned and dead. And that was the end of the wicked otter.

But the lobster would not let go.

"Come along, you [silly] old stick-in-the-mud," cried Tom, "or the fisherman will catch you!" And that was true, for Tom felt some one above beginning to haul up the pot.

But the lobster would not let go.

Tom saw the fisherman haul him up to the boat-side, and thought it was all up with him. But when Mr. Lobster saw the fisherman, he gave such a furious and tremendous snap, that he snapped out of his hand, and out of the pot, and safe into the sea. But he left his knobbed claw behind him; for it never came into his [foolish] head to let go after all, so he just shook his claw off as the easier method.

Part Two (Optional)

Kingsley veers off here to tell a story within the story.

Tom asked the lobster why he never thought of letting go. He said very determinedly that it was a point of honour among lobsters.

And so it is, as the Mayor of Plymouth found out once to his cost--eight or nine hundred years ago, of course; for if it had happened lately it would be personal to mention it.

For one day he was so tired with sitting on a hard chair, in a grand furred gown, with a gold chain round his neck, that he decided he would go and have an afternoon's fun, like any schoolboy, and catch lobsters with an iron hook. So to the Mewstone he went, and for lobsters he looked. And when he came to a certain crack in the rocks he was so excited that, instead of putting in his hook, he put in his hand; and Mr. Lobster was at home, and caught him by the finger, and held on.

"Yah!" said the mayor, and pulled as hard as he dared: but the more he pulled, the more the lobster pinched, till he was forced to be quiet.

Then he tried to get his hook in with his other hand; but the hole was too narrow.

Then he pulled again; but he could not stand the pain.

Then he shouted and bawled for help: but there was no one near [omission]. Then he began to turn a little pale; for the tide flowed, and still the lobster held on.

Then he turned quite white; for the tide was up to his knees, and still the lobster held on.

Then he thought of cutting off his finger; but he wanted two things to do it with--courage and a knife; and he had got neither.

Then he turned quite yellow; for the tide was up to his waist, and still the lobster held on.

Then he thought over all the naughty things he ever had done; all the sand which he had put in the sugar, and the sloe-leaves in the tea, and the water in the treacle, and the salt in the tobacco (because his brother was a brewer, and a man must help his own kin).

Then he turned quite blue; for the tide was up to his breast, and still the lobster held on.

Then, I have no doubt, he repented fully of all the said naughty things which he had done, and promised to mend his life, as too many do when they think they have no life left to mend. Whereby, as they fancy, they make a very cheap bargain. But the old fairy with the birch rod soon undeceives them.

And then he grew all colours at once, and turned up his eyes like a duck in thunder; for the water was up to his chin, and still the lobster held on.

And then came a man-of-war's boat round the Mewstone, and saw his head sticking up out of the water. One said it was a keg of brandy, and another that it was a coconut, and another that it was a buoy loose [omission]; but just then such a yell came out of a great hole in the middle of it that the midshipman in charge guessed what it was, and bade [them] pull up to it as fast as they could.

So somehow or other the Jack Tars got the lobster out, and set the mayor free, and put him ashore at the Barbican. He never went lobster-catching again; and we will hope he put no more salt in the tobacco, not even to sell his brother's beer. And that is the story of the Mayor of Plymouth, which has two advantages--first, that of being quite true; and second, that of having (as folks say all good stories ought to have) no moral whatsoever: no more, indeed, has any part of this book, because it is a fairy tale, you know.

Part Three

And now happened to Tom a most wonderful thing; for he had not left the lobster five minutes before he came upon a water-baby.

A real live water-baby, sitting on the white sand, very busy about a little point of rock. And when it saw Tom it looked up for a moment, and then cried, "Why, you are not one of us. You are a new baby! Oh, how delightful!" And it ran to Tom, and Tom ran to it, and they hugged and kissed each other for ever so long, they did not know why. But they did not want any introductions there under the water.

At last Tom said, "Oh, where have you been all this while? I have been looking for you so long, and I have been so lonely."

"We have been here for days and days. There are hundreds of us about the rocks. How was it you did not see us, or hear us when we sing and romp every evening before we go home?"

Tom looked at the baby again, and then he said: "Well, this is wonderful! I have seen things just like you again and again, but I thought you were shells, or sea-creatures. I never took you for water-babies like myself."

Now, was not that very odd? So odd, indeed, that you will, no doubt, want to know how it happened, and why Tom could never find a water-baby till after he had got the lobster out of the pot. And, if you will read this story nine times over, and then think for yourself, you will find out why. It is not good for little boys to be told everything, and never to be forced to use their own wits. They would learn, then, no more than they do at Dr. Dulcimer's famous suburban establishment for the idler members of the youthful aristocracy, where the masters learn the lessons and the boys hear them--which saves a great deal of trouble--for the time being.

Narration and Discussion

Tell the story of Tom's rescue of the lobster, as it might have been told in the Waterproof Gazette.

Kingsley says, "It is not good for little boys to be told everything, and never to be forced to use their own wits." Do you agree?

For further thought (mostly for the adults): Kingsley mentions a school "where the masters learn the lessons and the boys hear them--which saves a great deal of trouble--for the time being." What do you think Charlotte Mason might say about that?

Reading #17


Tom finds the home of the water-babies, and we hear the story of St. Brendan.


shillelagh: a thick stick, often used as a weapon

till the coming of the Cocqcigrues (kok-se-groo): Do you remember this phrase from Reading #6? We will hear it once more later on.

firth: a narrow inlet of the sea

basalt: a kind of volcanic rock

serpentine: a dark green mineral

sandstone: a sedimentary rock made up of grains of sand or quartz cemented together

grotto: a small cave

madrepore: a reef-building coral, or the polyp which produces it


St. Brendan: Brendan of Clonfert, the Irish saint also known as Brendan the Navigator. Note on spelling: Kingsley's text spells his name Brandan. I have changed it to Brendan as that seems to be the standard current spelling.

Fourier: Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, French mathematician and physicist

Queen Amphitrite: In Greek mythology, Amphitrite was the queen of the sea, and the wife of Poseidon


Staffa: an island of Scotland, known for its basalt formations

Kynance: a cove in Cornwall, England, known for its cliffs

Livermead: a spot near Torquay, in Devon (England), known for its red sandstone

Capri, Adelsberg: sites in Italy and Slovenia


Part One

"Now," said the baby, "come and help me, or I shall not have finished before my brothers and sisters come, and it is time to go home."

"What shall I help you at?"

"At this poor dear little rock; a great clumsy boulder came rolling by in the last storm, and knocked all its head off, and rubbed off all its flowers. And now I must plant it again with seaweeds, and coralline, and anemones, and I will make it the prettiest little rock-garden on all the shore."

So they worked away at the rock, and planted it, and smoothed the sand down round it, and capital fun they had till the tide began to turn. And then Tom heard all the other babies coming, laughing and singing and shouting and romping; and the noise they made was just like the noise of the ripple. So he knew that he had been hearing and seeing the water-babies all along; only he did not know them, because his eyes and ears were not opened.

And in they came, dozens and dozens of them, some bigger than Tom and some smaller, all in the neatest little white bathing dresses; and when they found that he was a new baby, they hugged him and kissed him, and then put him in the middle and danced round him on the sand, and there was no one ever so happy as poor little Tom.

"Now then," they cried all at once, "we must come away home, we must come away home, or the tide will leave us dry. We have mended all the broken seaweed, and put all the rock-pools in order, and planted all the shells again in the sand, and nobody will see where the ugly storm swept in last week."

And this is the reason why the rock-pools are always so neat and clean; because the water-babies come inshore after every storm to sweep them out, and comb them down, and put them all to rights again. Only where men are wasteful and dirty, and let sewers run into the sea instead of putting the stuff upon the fields like thrifty reasonable souls; or throw herrings' heads and dead dog-fish, or any other refuse, into the water; or in any way make a mess upon the clean shore--there the water-babies will not come, sometimes not for hundreds of years (for they cannot abide anything smelly or foul), but leave the sea-anemones and the crabs to clear away everything, till the good tidy sea has covered up all the dirt in soft mud and clean sand, where the water-babies can plant live cockles and whelks and razor-shells and sea-cucumbers and golden-combs, and make a pretty live garden again, after man's dirt is cleared away.

(And that, I suppose, is the reason why there are no water-babies at any watering-place which I have ever seen.)

Part Two (Optional)

Again, a story within the story.

And where is the home of the water-babies? In St. Brendan's fairy isle. Did you never hear of the blessed St. Brendan, how he preached to the wild Irish on the wild, wild Kerry coast, he and five other hermits, till they were weary and longed to rest?

For the [people there] would not listen to them, or come to confession and to mass, but liked better to brew [omission], and dance [omission], and knock each other over the head with shillelaghs [omission], and steal each other's cattle, and burn each other's homes; till St. Brendan and his friends were weary of them, for they would not learn to be peaceable Christians at all.

So St. Brendan went out to the point of Old Dunmore, and looked over the tide-way roaring round the Blasquets, at the end of all the world, and away into the ocean, and sighed-- "Ah that I had wings as a dove!" And far away, before the setting sun, he saw a blue fairy sea, and golden fairy islands, and he said, "Those are the islands of the blessed." Then he and his friends got into a [boat], and sailed away and away to the westward [omission for content].

And when St. Brendan and the hermits came to that fairy isle they found it overgrown with cedars and full of beautiful birds; and he sat down under the cedars and preached to all the birds in the air. And they liked his sermons so well that they told the fishes in the sea; and they came, and St. Brendan preached to them; and the fishes told the water-babies, who live in the caves under the isle; and they came up by hundreds every Sunday, and St. Brendan got quite a neat little Sunday-school. And there he taught the water-babies for a great many hundred years, till his eyes grew too dim to see, and his beard grew so long that he dared not walk for fear of treading on it, and then he might have tumbled down. And at last he and the five hermits fell fast asleep under the cedar-shades, and there they sleep unto this day. But the fairies took to the water-babies, and taught them their lessons themselves.

And some say that St. Brendan will awake and begin to teach the babies once more: but some think that he will sleep on, for better for worse, till the coming of the Cocqcigrues. But, on still clear summer evenings, when the sun sinks down into the sea, among golden cloud-capes and cloud-islands, and locks and firths of azure sky, the sailors fancy that they see, away to westward, St. Brendan's fairy isle [omission].

Part Three

Now when Tom got there, he found that the isle stood all on pillars, and that its roots were full of caves. There were pillars of black basalt, like Staffa; and pillars of green and crimson serpentine, like Kynance; and pillars ribboned with red and white and yellow sandstone, like Livermead; and there were blue grottoes like Capri, and white grottoes like Adelsberg; all curtained and draped with seaweeds, purple and crimson, green and brown; and strewn with soft white sand, on which the water-babies sleep every night. But, to keep the place clean and sweet, the crabs picked up all the scraps off the floor and ate them like so many monkeys; while the rocks were covered with ten thousand sea-anemones, and corals and madrepores, who scavenged the water all day long, and kept it nice and pure.

But, to make up to them for having to do such nasty work, they were not left black and dirty, as poor chimney-sweeps and dustmen are. No; the fairies are more considerate and just than that, and have dressed them all in the most beautiful colours and patterns, till they look like vast flower-beds of [bright] blossoms. If you think I am talking nonsense, I can only say that it is true; and that an old gentleman named Fourier used to say that we ought to do the same by chimney-sweeps and dustmen, and honour them instead of despising them [omission].

And there were the water-babies in thousands, more than Tom, or you either, could count.--All the little children whom the good fairies [care for], because their cruel mothers and fathers will not; all who are untaught and brought up [without knowledge of God], and all who come to grief by ill-usage or ignorance or neglect [omission]; they were all there, except, of course, the babes of Bethlehem who were killed by wicked King Herod; for they were taken straight to heaven long ago, as everybody knows, and we call them the Holy Innocents.

Narration and Discussion

This passage has lots of ideas that someone might agree with, or disagree with, or argue with. Tell about one thing that you think Kingsley got right, and something you are not sure about. Is there anything that you think he is quite wrong on?

Why do you think Kingsley differentiates between the mess and damage caused by boulders or storms, and that created by human pollution?

Creative narration: You are a water-baby. What's on your to-do list for today?

Reading #18


Tom now meets someone who will teach him to "take care what he is at."


water-snakes: In an omitted passage, Kingsley described the island's "police force," run by a bunch of fierce water-snakes.

anemones (a-nem-oh-nees): They have been mentioned already, but this seems to be a good place to explain the difference between land anemones (a plant) and sea anemones, which are actually part of the animal kingdom. They are related to the corals, jellyfish, and Hydra.

sea-bullseyes, sea-toffee: bullseyes and toffee are types of candy

take them in: fool them

birched: beat them with her birch rod

butties: men who hired labourers for coal mining

sea-nettles: a kind of jellyfish


Part One

But I wish Tom had given up all his naughty tricks, and left off tormenting dumb animals now that he had plenty of playfellows to amuse him. Instead of that, I am sorry to say, he would meddle with the creatures, all but the water-snakes, for they would stand no nonsense.

So he tickled the madrepores, to make them [close up]; and frightened the crabs, to make them hide in the sand and peep out at him with the tips of their eyes; and put stones into the anemones' mouths, to make them fancy that their dinner was coming.

The other children warned him, and said, "Take care what you are at. Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid is coming." But Tom never heeded them, being quite riotous with high spirits and good luck, till, one Friday morning early, Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid came indeed.

A very tremendous lady she was; and when the children saw her they all stood in a row, very upright indeed, and smoothed down their bathing dresses, and put their hands behind them, just as if they were going to be examined by the inspector. And she had on a black bonnet, and a black shawl [omission], and a pair of large green spectacles, and a great hooked nose, hooked so much that the bridge of it stood quite up above her eyebrows; and under her arm she carried a great birch-rod. Indeed, she was so ugly that Tom was tempted to make faces at her: but did not; for he did not admire the look of the birch-rod under her arm.

And she looked at the children one by one, and seemed very much pleased with them, though she never asked them one question about how they were behaving; and then began giving them all sorts of nice sea-things--sea-cakes, sea-apples, sea-oranges, sea-bullseyes, sea-toffee; and to the very best of all she gave sea-ices, made out of sea-cows' cream, which never melt under water [omission].

Now little Tom watched all these sweet things given away, till his mouth watered, and his eyes grew as round as an owl's. For he hoped that his turn would come at last; and so it did. For the lady called him up, and held out her fingers with something in them, and popped it into his mouth; and, lo and behold, it was a nasty cold hard pebble.

"You are a very cruel woman," said he, and began to whimper.

"And you are a very cruel boy; who puts pebbles into the sea-anemones' mouths, to take them in, and make them fancy that they had caught a good dinner! As you did to them, so I must do to you."

"Who told you that?" said Tom.

"You did yourself, this very minute."

Tom had never opened his lips; so he was very much taken aback indeed.

"Yes; every one tells me exactly what they have done wrong; and that without knowing it themselves. So there is no use trying to hide anything from me. Now go, and be a good boy, and I will put no more pebbles in your mouth, if you put none in other creatures."

"I did not know there was any harm in it," said Tom.

"Then you know now. People continually say that to me; but I tell them, if you don't know that fire burns, that is no reason that it should not burn you; and if you don't know that dirt breeds fever, that is no reason why the fevers should not kill you. The lobster did not know that there was any harm in getting into the lobster-pot; but it caught him all the same."

"Dear me," thought Tom, "she knows everything!" And so she did, indeed.

"And so, if you do not know that things are wrong, that is no reason why you should not be punished for them; though not as much, not as much, my little man," (and the lady looked very kindly, after all), "as if you did know."

"Well, you are a little hard on a poor lad," said Tom.

"Not at all; I am the best friend you ever had in all your life. But I will tell you; I cannot help punishing people when they do wrong. I like it no more than they do; I am often very, very sorry for them, poor things: but I cannot help it. If I tried not to do it, I should do it all the same. For I work by machinery, just like an engine; and am full of wheels and springs inside; and am wound up very carefully, so that I cannot help going."

"Was it long ago since they wound you up?" asked Tom. For he thought, the cunning little fellow, "She will run down some day: or they may forget to wind her up, as old Grimes used to forget to wind up his watch when he came in from the public-house; and then I shall be safe."

"I was wound up once and for all, so long ago, that I forget all about it."

"Dear me," said Tom, "you must have been made a long time!"

"I never was made, my child; and I shall go for ever and ever; for I am as old as Eternity, and yet as young as Time." And there came over the lady's face a very curious expression--very solemn, and very sad; and yet very, very sweet. And she looked up and away, as if she were gazing through the sea, and through the sky, at something far, far off; and as she did so, there came such a quiet, tender, patient, hopeful smile over her face that Tom thought for the moment that she did not look ugly at all. And no more she did; for she was like a great many people who have not a pretty feature in their faces, and yet are lovely to behold, and draw little children's hearts to them at once; because though the house is plain enough, yet from the windows a beautiful and good spirit is looking forth.

And Tom smiled in her face, she looked so pleasant for the moment. And the strange fairy smiled too and said: "Yes. You thought me very ugly just now, did you not?" Tom hung down his head, and got very red about the ears.

"And I am very ugly. I am the ugliest fairy in the world; and I shall be, till people behave themselves as they ought to do. And then I shall grow as handsome as my sister, who is the loveliest fairy in the world; and her name is Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby. So she begins where I end, and I begin where she ends; and those who will not listen to her must listen to me, as you will see. Now, all of you run away, except Tom; and he may stay and see what I am going to do. It will be a very good warning for him to begin with, before he goes to school.

"Now, Tom, every Friday I come down here and call up all who have ill-used little children and serve them as they served the children."

And at that Tom was frightened, and crept under a stone; which made the two crabs who lived there very angry, and frightened their friend the butterfish into flapping hysterics: but he would not move for them.

[Omission for length and content: Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid summons the doctors who treat little children in foolish ways, and gives them a taste of their own medicine. She also gets her revenge on parents who make children wear uncomfortable clothes and shoes.]

Then she called up all the careless nurserymaids, and stuck pins into them all over, and wheeled them about in perambulators with tight straps across their stomachs and their heads and arms hanging over the side, till they [felt] quite sick [omission].

[Then she] called up all the cruel schoolmasters--whole regiments and brigades of them; and when she saw them, she frowned most terribly, and set to work in earnest, as if the best part of the day's work was to come [omission]. And she boxed their ears, and thumped them over the head with rulers, and pandied their hands with canes, and told them that they told stories, and were this and that bad sort of people; and the more they were very indignant, and stood upon their honour, and declared they told the truth, the more she declared they were not, and that they were only telling lies; and at last she birched them all round soundly with her great birch-rod and [gave them each three thousand lines of memory work] to learn by heart before she came back next Friday. And at that they all cried and howled so, that their breaths came all up through the sea like bubbles out of soda-water; and that is one reason of the bubbles in the sea.

There are others: but that is the one which principally concerns little boys. And by that time she was so tired that she was glad to stop; and, indeed, she had done a very good day's work.

Part Two

Tom did not quite dislike the old lady; but he could not help thinking her a little spiteful--and no wonder if she was, poor old soul; for if she has to wait to grow handsome till people do as they would be done by, she will have to wait a very long time. Poor old Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid! she has a great deal of hard work before her, and had better have been born a washerwoman, and stood over a tub all day; but, you see, people cannot always choose their own profession.

But Tom longed to ask her one question; and after all, whenever she looked at him, she did not look cross at all; and now and then there was a funny smile in her face, and she chuckled to herself in a way which gave Tom courage, and at last he said: "Pray, ma'am, may I ask you a question?"

"Certainly, my little dear."

"Why don't you bring all the bad masters here and serve them out too? The butties that knock about the poor collier-boys; and the nailers that file off their lads' noses and hammer their fingers; and all the master sweeps, like my master Grimes? I saw him fall into the water long ago; so I surely expected he would have been here. I'm sure he was bad enough to me."

Then the old lady looked so very stern that Tom was quite frightened, and sorry that he had been so bold. But she was not angry with him. She only answered, "I look after them all the week round; and they are in a very different place from this, because they knew that they were doing wrong." She spoke very quietly; but there was something in her voice which made Tom tingle from head to foot, as if he had got into a shoal of sea-nettles.

"But these people," she went on, "did not know that they were doing wrong: they were only [foolish] and impatient; and therefore I only punish them till they become patient, and learn to use their common sense like reasonable beings. But as for chimney-sweeps, and collier-boys, and nailer lads, my sister has set good people to stop all that sort of thing; and very much obliged to her I am; for if she could only stop the cruel masters from ill-using poor children, I should grow handsome at least a thousand years sooner. And now do you be a good boy, and do as you would be done by, which they did not; and then, when my sister, Madame Doasyouwouldbedoneby, comes on Sunday, perhaps she will take notice of you, and teach you how to behave. She understands that better than I do." And so she went.

Narration and Discussion

Why did Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid put a pebble in Tom's mouth? Do you think that he will get sea-candies instead, next time she comes?

Reading #19


In this short passage we meet the nicer-looking sister of Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid.


cuddly: Apparently the first recorded use of this word in English.

"The doll you lost!": This poem is included in the AO Year One Poetry Anthology.

Aunt Agitate's Arguments: see previous notes


Tom was very glad to hear that there was no chance of meeting Grimes again, though he was a little sorry for him, considering that he used sometimes to give him the leavings of the beer: but he determined to be a very good boy all Saturday; and he was; for he never frightened one crab, nor tickled any live corals, nor put stones into the sea anemones' mouths, to make them fancy they had got a dinner; and when Sunday morning came, sure enough, Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby came too. Whereat all the little children began dancing and clapping their hands, and Tom danced too with all his might.

And as for the pretty lady, I cannot tell you what the colour of her hair was, or of her eyes: no more could Tom; for, when any one looks at her, all they can think of is, that she has the sweetest, kindest, tenderest, funniest, merriest face they ever saw, or want to see. But Tom saw that she was a very tall woman, as tall as her sister; but instead of being gnarly [omission], and scaly, and prickly, like her, she was the most nice, soft [omission], cuddly, delicious creature who ever [held] a baby; and she understood babies thoroughly, for she had plenty of her own, whole rows and regiments of them, and has to this day.

And all her delight was, whenever she had a spare moment, to play with babies, in which she showed herself a woman of sense; for babies are the best company, and the pleasantest playfellows, in the world; at least, so all the wise people in the world think.

And therefore when the children saw her, they naturally all caught hold of her, and pulled her till she sat down on a stone, and climbed into her lap, and clung round her neck, and caught hold of her hands; and then they all put their thumbs into their mouths, and began cuddling and purring like so many kittens, as they ought to have done. While those who could get nowhere else sat down on the sand, and cuddled her [bare] feet [omission]. And Tom stood staring at them; for he could not understand what it was all about.

"And who are you, you little darling?" she said.

"Oh, that is the new baby!" they all cried, pulling their thumbs out of their mouths; "and he never had any mother," and they all put their thumbs back again, for they did not wish to lose any time.

"Then I will be his mother, and he shall have the very best place; so get out, all of you, this moment." And she took up two great armfuls of babies--nine hundred under one arm, and thirteen hundred under the other--and threw them away, right and left, into the water. But they [did not mind it], and did not even take their thumbs out of their mouths, but came paddling and wriggling back to her like so many tadpoles, till you could see nothing of her from head to foot for the swarm of little babies.

But she took Tom in her arms, and laid him in the softest place of all, and kissed him, and patted him, and talked to him, tenderly and low, such things as he had never heard before in his life; and Tom looked up into her eyes, and loved her, and loved, till he fell fast asleep from pure love.

And when he woke she was telling the children a story. And what story did she tell them? One story she told them, which begins every Christmas Eve, and yet never ends at all for ever and ever; and, as she went on, the children took their thumbs out of their mouths and listened quite seriously; but not sadly at all; for she never told them anything sad; and Tom listened too, and never grew tired of listening. And he listened so long that he fell fast asleep again, and, when he woke, the lady was [holding] him still.

"Don't go away," said little Tom. "This is so nice. I never had any one to cuddle me before."

"Don't go away," said all the children; "you have not sung us one song."

"Well, I have time for only one. So what shall it be?"

"The doll you lost! The doll you lost!" cried all the babies at once.

So the strange fairy sang:--

I once had a sweet little doll, dears,
            The prettiest doll in the world;
Her cheeks were so red and so white, dears,
            And her hair was so charmingly curled.
But I lost my poor little doll, dears,
            As I played in the heath one day:
And I cried for her more than a week, dears.
            But I never could find where she lay.

I found my poor little doll, dears,
            As I played in the heath one day:
Folks say she is terribly changed, dears,
            For her paint is all washed away,
And her arm trodden off by the cows, dears,
            And her hair not the least bit curled:
Yet for old sakes' sake she is still, dears,
            The prettiest doll in the world.

What a silly song for a fairy to sing! And what silly water-babies to be quite delighted at it! Well, but you see they have not the advantage of Aunt Agitate's Arguments in the sea-land down below.

"Now," said the fairy to Tom, "will you be a good boy for my sake, and torment no more sea-beasts till I come back?"

"And you will cuddle me again?" said poor little Tom.

"Of course I will, you little duck. I should like to take you with me and cuddle you all the way, only I must not"; and away she went.

So Tom really tried to be a good boy, and tormented no sea-beasts after that as long as he lived; and he is quite alive, I assure you, still.

Oh, how good little boys ought to be who have kind, [gentle] mammas to cuddle them and tell them stories; and how afraid they ought to be of growing naughty, and bringing tears into their mammas' pretty eyes!

Narration and Discussion

We might think that Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid, with her fearsome appearance and big stick, would be the instructor in behaviour. However, she tells Tom that when Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby comes on Sunday, "perhaps she will take notice of you, and teach you how to behave." Why do you think that might be her job instead?

What is the story "which begins every Christmas Eve, and yet never ends at all for ever and ever?"

Does the song about the lost doll remind you of any other stories?

Poetic Interlude #6

The lines chosen for the next chapter are from Wordsworth's long poem "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood." They seem to be Wordsworth's way of saying, "Children, don't be in too much of a hurry to grow up."

Thou little Child, yet glorious in the night
Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,
Why with such earnest pains dost thou provoke
The years to bring the inevitable yoke,
Thus blindly with thy blessedness at strife?
Full soon thy Soul shall have her earthly freight,
And custom lie upon thee with a weight,
Heavy as frost, and deep almost as life!

Reading #20


This is, perhaps, one of the best-remembered passages in The Water-Babies: the case of the stolen sweets.


waxed fat and kicked: Deuteronomy 32:15

sweetmeats: sweets, candies


[omission at the beginning of the chapter]

Now you may fancy that Tom was quite good, when he had everything that he could want or wish: but you would be very much mistaken. Being quite comfortable is a very good thing; but it does not make people good. Indeed, it sometimes makes them naughty, as it made the people in the Bible, who waxed fat and kicked, like horses overfed and underworked.

And I am very sorry to say that this happened to little Tom. For he grew so fond of the sea-bullseyes and sea-lollipops that his foolish little head could think of nothing else: and he was always longing for more, and wondering when the strange lady would come again and give him some, and what she would give him, and how much, and whether she would give him more than the others. And he thought of nothing but lollipops by day, and dreamt of nothing else by night--and what happened then?

That he began to watch the lady to see where she kept the sweet things: and began hiding, and sneaking, and following her about, and pretending to be looking the other way, or going after something else, till he found out that she kept them in a beautiful mother-of-pearl cabinet away in a deep crack of the rocks.

And he longed to go to the cabinet, and yet he was afraid; and then he longed again, and was less afraid; and at last, by continual thinking about it, he longed so violently that he was not afraid at all. And one night, when all the other children were asleep, and he could not sleep for thinking of lollipops, he crept away among the rocks, and got to the cabinet, and behold! it was open.

But, when he saw all the nice things inside, instead of being delighted, he was quite frightened, and wished he had never come there. And then he would only touch them, and he did; and then he would only taste one, and he did; and then he would only eat one, and he did; and then he would only eat two, and then three, and so on; and then he was terrified lest she should come and catch him, and began gobbling them down so fast that he did not taste them, or have any pleasure in them; and then he felt sick, and would have only one more; and then only one more again; and so on till he had eaten them all up.

And all the while, close behind him, stood Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid.

Part Two

Some people may say, But why did she not keep her cupboard locked? Well, I know.--It may seem a very strange thing, but she never does keep her cupboard locked; every one may go and taste for themselves, and fare accordingly. It is very odd, but so it is; and I am quite sure that she knows best. Perhaps she wishes people to keep their fingers out of the fire, by having them burned.

She took off her spectacles, because she did not like to see too much; and in her pity she arched up her eyebrows into her very hair, and her eyes grew so wide that they would have taken in all the sorrows of the world, and filled with great big tears, as they too often did. But all she said was: "Ah, you poor little dear! you are just like all the rest." But she said it to herself, and Tom neither heard nor saw her.

Now, you must not fancy that she was sentimental at all. If you do, and think that she is going to let off you, or me, or any human being when we do wrong, because she is too tender-hearted to punish us, then you will find yourself very much mistaken, as many a man does every year and every day.

But what did the strange fairy do when she saw all her lollipops eaten? Did she fly at Tom, catch him by the scruff of the neck, hold him [omission], hurry him, hit him, poke him, pull him, pinch him, pound him, put him in the corner, shake him, slap him, set him on a cold stone to reconsider himself, and so forth? Not a bit. You may watch her at work if you know where to find her. But you will never see her do that. For, if she had, she knew quite well Tom would have fought, and kicked, and bit, and said bad words, and turned again that moment into a naughty little [omission] chimney-sweep [who trusted no-one]. For, if she had, she would have tempted him to tell lies in his fright; and that would have been worse for him, if possible, than even becoming a [naughty] chimney-sweep again.

No. She leaves that for anxious parents and teachers (lazy ones, some call them), who, instead of giving children a fair trial, such as they would expect and demand for themselves, force them by fright to confess their own faults [omission]. Some folks may say, "Ah! but the Fairy does not need to do that if she knows everything already." True. But, if she did not know, she would not surely behave worse than a British judge and jury; and no more should parents and teachers either.

So she just said nothing at all about the matter, not even when Tom came next day with the rest for sweet things. He was horribly afraid of coming: but he was still more afraid of staying away, lest anyone should suspect him. He was dreadfully afraid, too, lest there should be no sweets--as was to be expected, he having eaten them all--and lest then the fairy should inquire who had taken them. But, behold! She pulled out just as many as ever, which astonished Tom, and frightened him still more.

And, when the fairy looked him full in the face, he shook from head to foot: however she gave him his share like the rest, and he thought within himself that she could not have found him out. But, when he put the sweets into his mouth, he hated the taste of them; and they made him so sick that he had to get away as fast as he could; and terribly sick he was, and very cross and unhappy, all the week after.

Then, when next week came, he had his share again; and again the fairy looked him full in the face; but more sadly than she had ever looked. And he could not bear the sweets: but took them again in spite of himself.

Part Three

And [on Sunday], when Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby came, he wanted to be cuddled like the rest; but she said very seriously:

"I should like to cuddle you; but I cannot, you are so [tough] and prickly."

And Tom looked at himself: and he was all over prickles, just like a sea-egg. Which was quite natural; for you must know and believe that people's souls make their bodies just as a snail makes its shell (I am not joking, my little man; I am in serious, solemn earnest). And therefore, when Tom's soul grew all prickly with naughty tempers, his body could not help growing prickly too, so that nobody would cuddle him, or play with him, or even like to look at him.

What could Tom do now but go away and hide in a corner and cry? For nobody would play with him, and he knew full well why. And he was so miserable all that week that when the ugly fairy came and looked at him once more full in the face, more seriously and sadly than ever, he could stand it no longer, and thrust the sweetmeats away, saying, "No, I don't want any: I can't bear them now," and then burst out crying, poor little man, and told Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid every word as it happened.

He was horribly frightened when he had done so; for he expected her to punish him very severely. But, instead, she only took him up and kissed him, which was not quite pleasant, for her chin was very bristly indeed; but he was so lonely-hearted, he thought that rough kissing was better than none.

"I will forgive you, little man," she said. "I always forgive every one the moment they tell me the truth of their own accord."

"Then you will take away all these nasty prickles?"

"That is a very different matter. You put them there yourself, and only you can take them away."

"But how can I do that?" asked Tom, crying afresh.

"Well, I think it is time for you to go to school; so I shall fetch you a schoolmistress, who will teach you how to get rid of your prickles." And so she went away.

Narration and Discussion

Kingsley says, "Being quite comfortable is a very good thing; but it does not make people good. Indeed, it sometimes makes them naughty . . . " Do you agree?

Why did Tom's prickles not disappear, even though he was sorry for stealing?

Who do you think Tom's schoolmistress might be?

Creative narration #1: As Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid is said to enjoy reading crime stories in the Waterproof Gazette, tell the story as it might have been reported there.

Creative narration #2: Retell the story of Tom and the lollipops in any creative format you like.

For further thought: In Charlotte Mason's book Ourselves, a book which students will begin reading in AO Year Seven (Form III), she gives some advice that might have helped Tom. She points out that hunger is, in itself, a very helpful thing; if we never felt hungry, we wouldn't eat. However, healthy hunger, which is a good servant, has an "evil twin" called Gluttony, which aims at being the "master." Does this sound like advice that Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby might have given?

Gluttony leads his victim to the confectioner's windows and makes him think how nice this or that would taste: all his pocket-money goes in tarts, sweets, and toffee . . . He does not think much about his lessons, because he has a penny in his pocket and is considering what is the nicest thing he can buy for it; or, if he is older, perhaps he has a pound, but his thought is still the same, and Gluttony gets it all . . . As for nice things, of course we all want nice things now and then; but let us eat what is given to us of the chocolate or fruit at table, and not think any more about it . . . The best plan is to want to spend your money upon something else--some sort of collection, perhaps; or to save up to buy a present or a fishing-rod or anything worth having. Gluttony lets you alone when you cease to think of him and his good things. (Ourselves Book I, pp. 12-14)

Reading #21


As Tom begins his "schooling," also discovers that there is something important he has to do. The trouble is, he doesn't want to do it. At all. Not ever.


she always went away home: As Ellie tries to explain to Tom, "home" is a very beautiful place, but she cannot describe it very well. Based on what happened at the seashore, and on her appearance ("with long robes floating all around her"), it seems logical that Ellie's new "home" is in heaven.

You are the very same little chimney-sweep who came into my bedroom: It is interesting that Ellie recognizes Tom, since when she saw him in her bedroom, he was so dirty, and, also, since he is now a much-changed Water-Baby. We must suppose that something of his essential Tom-ness has always been there.

Other-end-of-Nowhere: The Other-end-of-Nowhere seems to be a place of "letting the punishment fit the crime."

I'll go: We have not been told where Tom must go, but only that it will be somewhere he does not like, to do what he does not like, and help somebody he does not like.


Part One

Tom was frightened at the notion of a schoolmistress; for he thought she would certainly come with a birch-rod or a cane; but he comforted himself, at last, that she might be something like the old woman in Vendale--which she was not in the least; for, when the fairy brought her, she was the most beautiful little girl that ever was seen, with long curls floating behind her like a golden cloud, and long robes floating all round her like a silver one.

"There he is," said the fairy; "and you must teach him to be good, whether you like or not."

"I know," said the little girl; but she did not seem quite to like, for she put her finger in her mouth, and looked at Tom under her brows; and Tom put his finger in his mouth, and looked at her under his brows, for he was horribly ashamed of himself.

The little girl seemed hardly to know how to begin; and perhaps she would never have begun at all if poor Tom had not burst out crying, and begged her to teach him to be good and help him to cure his prickles; and at that she grew so tender-hearted that she began teaching him as prettily as ever [a] child was taught in the world.

And what did the little girl teach Tom? She taught him, first, what you have been taught ever since you said your first prayers at your mother's knees; but she taught him much more simply. For the lessons in that world, my child, have no such hard words in them as the lessons in this, and therefore the water-babies like them better than you like your lessons, and long to learn them more and more; and grown men cannot puzzle nor quarrel over their meaning, as they do here on land; for those lessons all rise clear and pure [omission] out of the everlasting ground of all life and truth.

So she taught Tom every day in the week; only on Sundays she always went away home, and the kind fairy took her place. And before she had taught Tom many Sundays, his prickles had vanished quite away, and he was smooth and clean again.

"Dear me!" said the little girl; "why, I know you now. You are the very same little chimney-sweep who came into my bedroom."

"Dear me!" cried Tom. "And I know you, too, now. You are the very little white lady whom I saw in bed." And he [omission] longed to hug and kiss her; but did not, remembering that she was a lady born; so he only jumped round and round her till he was quite tired. And then they began telling each other all their story--how he had got into the water, and she had fallen over the rock; and how he had swum down to the sea, and how she had flown out of the window; and how this, that, and the other, till it was all talked out: and then they both began over again, and I can't say which of the two talked fastest.

And then they set to work at their lessons again, and both liked them so well that they went on well till seven full years were past and gone.

Part Two

You may fancy that Tom was quite content and happy all those seven years; but the truth is, he was not. He had always one thing on his mind, and that was--where little Ellie went, when she went home on Sundays.

To a very beautiful place, she said.

But what was the beautiful place like, and where was it?

Ah! that is just what she could not say. And it is strange, but true, that no one can say; and that those who have been oftenest in it, or even nearest to it, can say least about it, and make people understand least what it is like. There are a good many folks about the Other-end-of-Nowhere [a place we will hear more about later], who pretend to know it from north to south as well as if they had been penny postmen there; but, as they are safe at the Other-end-of-Nowhere, nine hundred and ninety-nine million miles away, what they say cannot concern us.

But the dear, sweet, loving, wise, good, self-sacrificing people, who really go there, can never tell you anything about it, save that it is the most beautiful place in all the world; and, if you ask them more, they grow modest, and hold their peace, for fear of being laughed at; and quite right they are. So all that good little Ellie could say was, that it was worth all the rest of the world put together. And of course that only made Tom the more anxious to go likewise.

"Miss Ellie," he said at last, "I will know why I cannot go with you when you go home on Sundays, or I shall have no peace, and give you none either."

"You must ask the fairies that."

So when the fairy, Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid, came next, Tom asked her.

"Little boys who are only fit to play with sea-beasts cannot go there," she said. "Those who go there must go first where they do not like, and do what they do not like, and help somebody they do not like."

"Why, did Ellie do that?"

"Ask her."

And Ellie blushed, and said, "Yes, Tom, I did not like coming here at first; I was so much happier at home, where it is always Sunday. And I was afraid of you, Tom, at first, because--because--"

"Because I was all over prickles? But I am not prickly now, am I, Miss Ellie?"

"No," said Ellie. "I like you very much now; and I like coming here, too."

"And perhaps," said the fairy, "you will learn to like going where you don't like, and helping someone that you don't like, as Ellie has." But Tom put his finger in his mouth, and hung his head down; for he did not see that at all.

So when Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby came, Tom asked her; for he thought in his little head, "She is not so strict as her sister, and perhaps she may let me off more easily."

Ah, Tom, Tom, silly fellow! and yet I don't know why I should blame you, while so many grown people have got the very same notion in their heads. But, when they try it, they get just the same answer as Tom did. For, when he asked the second fairy, she told him just what the first did, and in the very same words.

Tom was very unhappy at that. And, when Ellie went home on Sunday, he fretted and cried all day, and did not care to listen to the fairy's stories about good children, though they were prettier than ever. Indeed, the more he overheard of them, the less he liked to listen, because they were all about children who did what they did not like, and took trouble for other people, and worked to feed their little brothers and sisters instead of caring only for their play. And, when she began to tell a story about a holy child in old times, who [died because he] would not worship idols, Tom could bear no more, and ran away and hid among the rocks.

Part Three

And, when Ellie came back, he was shy with her, because he fancied she looked down on him, and thought him a coward. And then he grew quite cross with her, because she was superior to him, and did what he could not do. And poor Ellie was quite surprised and sad; and at last Tom burst out crying; but he would not tell her what was really in his mind. And all the while he was eaten up with curiosity to know where Ellie went to; so that he began not to care for his playmates, or for the sea-palace, or anything else. But perhaps that made matters all the easier for him; for he grew so discontented with everything round him that he did not care to stay, and did not care where he went.

"Well," he said, at last, "I am so miserable here, I'll go; if only you will go with me?"

"Ah!" said Ellie, "I wish I might; but the worst of it is, that the fairy says that you must go alone if you go at all. Now don't poke that poor crab about, Tom" (for he was feeling very naughty and mischievous), "or the fairy will have to punish you."

Tom was very nearly saying, "I don't care if she does;" but he stopped himself in time. "I know what she wants me to do," he said, whining most dolefully. "She wants me to go after that horrid old Grimes. I don't like him, that's certain. And if I find him, he will turn me into a chimney-sweep again, I know. That's what I have been afraid of all along."

"No, he won't--I know as much as that. Nobody can turn water-babies into sweeps, or hurt them at all, as long as they are good."

"Ah," said naughty Tom, "I see what you want; you are persuading me all along to go, because you are tired of me, and want to get rid of me."

Little Ellie opened her eyes very wide at that, and they were all brimming over with tears. "Oh, Tom, Tom!" she said, very mournfully--and then she cried, "Oh, Tom! where are you?"

And Tom cried, "Oh, Ellie, where are you?" For neither of them could see each other--not the least. Little Ellie vanished quite away, and Tom heard her voice calling him, and growing smaller and smaller, and fainter and fainter, till all was silent.

Narration and Discussion

Why did Tom not "care for his playmates, or for the sea-palace," or want to hear the fairy's stories anymore?

Why do you think Ellie disappeared? Can Tom help her to come back?

Reading #22


Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid tells a very strange story, but it does convince Tom that doing just-as-you-like can lead to trouble.


make his own bed and lie on it: Refers to the old saying, "You have made your bed, and now you must lie on it."

her photographs did not merely represent light and shade, as ours do: In Kingsley's time, even black-and-white photography was quite new and astonishing.

[jaw] harp: a small musical instrument which is twanged against the teeth or lips

flapdoodle: foolishness, nonsense

hippopotamus majors: See note in Reading #15.


Part One

Who was frightened then but Tom? He swam up and down among the rocks, into all the halls and chambers, faster than ever he swam before, but could not find her. He shouted after her, but she did not answer; he asked all the other children, but they had not seen her; and at last he went up to the top of the water and began crying and screaming for Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid--which perhaps was the best thing to do--for she came in a moment.

"Oh!" said Tom. "Oh, dear, oh dear! I have been naughty to Ellie, and I have killed her--I know I have killed her."

"Not quite that," said the fairy; "but I have sent her away home, and she will not come back again for I do not know how long."

And at that Tom cried so bitterly that the salt sea was swelled with his tears, and the tide was 3,954,620,819ths of an inch higher than it had been the day before; but perhaps that was owing to the waxing of the moon.

"How cruel of you to send Ellie away!" sobbed Tom. "However, I will find her again, if I go to the world's end to look for her."

The fairy did not slap Tom, and tell him to hold his tongue; but she took him on her lap very kindly, just as her sister would have done; and put him in mind how it was not her fault, because she was wound up inside, like watches, and could not help doing things whether she liked or not. And then she told him how he had been "in the nursery" long enough, and must go out now and see the world, if he intended ever to be a man; and how he must go all alone by himself, as everyone else that ever was born has to go, and see with his own eyes, and smell with his own nose, and make his own bed and lie on it, and burn his own fingers if he put them into the fire.

And then she told him how many fine things there were to be seen in the world, and what an odd, curious, pleasant, orderly, respectable, well-managed, and, on the whole, successful (as, indeed, might have been expected) sort of a place it was, if people would only be tolerably brave and honest and good in it; and then she told him not to be afraid of anything he met, for nothing would harm him if he remembered all his lessons, and did what he knew was right. And at last she comforted poor little Tom so much that he was quite eager to go, and wanted to set out that minute. "Only," he said, "if I might see Ellie once before I went!"

"Why do you want that?"

"Because--because I should be so much happier if I thought she had forgiven me."

And in the twinkling of an eye there stood Ellie, smiling, and looking so happy that Tom longed to kiss her; but was still afraid it would not be respectful, because she was a lady born.

Part Two

"I am going, Ellie!" said Tom. "I am going, if it is to the world's end. But I don't like going at all, and that's the truth."

"Pooh! pooh! pooh!" said the fairy. "You will like it very well indeed, you little rogue, and you know that at the bottom of your heart. But if you don't, I will make you like it. Come here, and see what happens to people who do only what is pleasant."

And she took out of one of her cupboards (she had all sorts of mysterious cupboards in the cracks of the rocks) the most wonderful waterproof book, full of such photographs as never were seen. For she had found out photography (and this is a fact) more than 13,598,000 years before anybody was born; and, what is more, her photographs did not merely represent light and shade, as ours do, but color also, and all colors, as you may see if you look at a blackcock's tail, or a butterfly's wing, or indeed most things that are or can be, so to speak. And therefore her photographs were very curious and famous, and the children looked with great delight for the opening of the book.

And on the title-page was written, "The History of the great and famous nation of the Doasyoulikes, who came away from the country of Hardwork, because they wanted to play on the [jaw] harp all day long."

In the first picture they saw these Doasyoulikes living in the land of Readymade, at the foot of the Happy-go-lucky Mountains, where flapdoodle grows wild [omission]. They lived very much such a life as those jolly old Greeks in Sicily, whom you may see painted on the ancient vases, and really there seemed to be great excuses for them, for they had no need to work [omission]. They were very fond of music, but it was too much trouble to learn the piano or the violin; and as for dancing, that would have been too great an exertion.

So they sat on ant-hills all day long, and played on the [jaw] harp; and, if the ants bit them, why they just got up and went to the next ant-hill, till they were bitten there likewise. And they sat under the flapdoodle-trees, and let the flapdoodle drop into their mouths; and under the vines, and squeezed the grape-juice down their throats; and, if any little pigs ran about ready roasted, crying, "Come and eat me," as was their fashion in that country, they waited till the pigs ran against their mouths, and then took a bite, and were content, just as so many oysters would have been.

They needed no weapons, for no enemies ever came near their land; and no tools, for everything was readymade to their hand; and the stern old fairy Necessity never came near them to hunt them up, and make them use their wits, or die. And so on, and so on, and so on, till there were never such comfortable, easy-going, happy-go-lucky people in the world.

"Well, that is a jolly life," said Tom.

"You think so?" said the fairy. "Do you see that great peaked mountain there behind," said the fairy, "with smoke coming out of its top?"


"And do you see all those ashes, and slag, and cinders lying about?"


"Then turn over the next five hundred years, and you will see what happens next."

And behold the mountain had blown up like a barrel of gunpowder, and then boiled over like a kettle; whereby one-third of the Doasyoulikes were blown into the air, and another third were smothered in ashes; so that there was only one-third left.

"You see," said the fairy, "what comes of living on a burning mountain."

"Oh, why did you not warn them?" said little Ellie.

"I did warn them all that I could. I let the smoke come out of the mountain; and wherever there is smoke there is fire. And I laid the ashes and cinders all about; and wherever there are cinders, cinders may be again. But they did not like to face facts, my dears, as very few people do." [omission]

And then she turned over the next five hundred years: and there were the remnant of the Doasyoulikes, doing as they liked, as before. They were too lazy to move away from the mountain; so they said, "If it has blown up once, that is all the more reason that it should not blow up again." And they were few in number: but they only said, "The more the merrier, but the fewer the better fare."

However, that was not quite true; for all the flapdoodle-trees were killed by the volcano, and they had eaten all the roast pigs, who, of course, could not be expected to have little ones. So they had to live very hard, on nuts and roots which they scratched out of the ground with sticks. Some of them talked of sowing corn, as their ancestors used to do, before they came into the land of Readymade; but they had forgotten how to make ploughs (they had forgotten even how to make [jaw] harps by this time), and had eaten all the seed-corn which they brought out of the land of Hardwork years since; and of course it was too much trouble to go away and find more. So they lived miserably on roots and nuts [omission].

And she turned over the next five hundred years. And there they were all living up in trees, and making nests to keep off the rain. And underneath the trees lions were prowling about.

"Why," said Ellie, "the lions seem to have eaten a good many of them, for there are very few left now."

"Yes," said the fairy; "you see it was only the strongest and most active ones who could climb the trees, and so escape."

"But what great, hulking, broad-shouldered chaps they are," said Tom; "they are a rough lot as ever I saw."

"Yes, they are getting very strong now; for the ladies will not marry any but the very strongest and fiercest gentlemen, who can help them up the trees out of the lions' way."

[The story goes on, and the Doasyoulikes continue to devolve into something much less like human beings.]

Then the fairy turned over the next five hundred years. And they were fewer still.

"Why, there is one on the ground picking up roots," said Ellie, "and he cannot walk upright." No more he could; for in the same way that the shape of their feet had altered, the shape of their backs had altered also.

"Why," cried Tom, "I declare they are all apes."

"Something fearfully like it, poor creatures," said the fairy. "They are grown so [foolish] now, that they can hardly think: for none of them have used their wits for many hundred years."[omission]

And in the next five hundred years they were all dead and gone, by bad food and wild beasts and hunters [omission]. And that was the end of the great and jolly nation of the Doasyoulikes.

And, when Tom and Ellie came to the end of the book, they looked very sad and solemn; and they had good reason so to do, for they really fancied that the men were apes, and never thought, in their simplicity, of asking whether the creatures had hippopotamus majors in their brains or not; in which case, as you have been told already, they could not possibly have been apes, though they were more apish than the apes of all aperies.

"And where are they all now?" asked Ellie.

"Exactly where they ought to be, my dear."

Part Three

"Yes!" said the fairy, solemnly, half to herself, as she closed the wonderful book. "Folks say now that I can make beasts into men, by circumstances, and selection, and competition, and so forth. Well, perhaps they are right; and perhaps, again, they are wrong [omission].

"But let them recollect this, that there are two sides to every question, and a downhill as well as an uphill road; and, if I can turn beasts into men, I can, by the same laws of circumstances, and selection, and competition, turn men into beasts. You were very near being turned into a beast once or twice, little Tom. Indeed, if you had not made up your mind to go on this journey, and see the world [omission], I am not sure but that you would have ended as an eft in a pond."

"Oh, dear me!" said Tom; "sooner than that, and be all over slime, I'll go this minute, if it is to the world's end."

Narration and Discussion

It seems unlikely that humans, even lazy humans, would forget how to do all those things! But what might (more realistically) happen to people who will not try to learn or do hard things?

Do you remember the mayfly, earlier on, who said he intended to go out and see the world? Is there a difference between his travel intentions and Tom's?

For further thought: What is the hardest thing you have had to work at learning? Was the effort worthwhile?

For even further thought: Here is a bit more from Charlotte Mason's book Ourselves. Just as the good appetite Hunger has his "evil twin" named Gluttony, the helpful servant Rest has his dark side, named Sloth.

Once Sloth is ruler in Mansoul, the person cannot wake up in the morning, dawdles over his dressing, comes down late for breakfast, hates a walk, can't bear games, dawdles over his [schoolwork], does not want to make boats or whistles, or collect stamps . . . [and] never does anything for anybody, not because he is unkind or ill-natured, but because he will not take the trouble.
Poor fellow! he does not know that he is falling daily more and more under the power of a hard master. The less he exerts himself, the less he is able to exert himself, because the muscles, which Restlessness keeps firm and in good order, Sloth relaxes and weakens until it becomes a labour to raise the hand to the head or to drag one foot after another . . . But take courage, the escape is easy: Restlessness is on the alert to save you from Sloth in the beginning. Up and be doing, whether at work or play. (Ourselves Book I, p. 20)

Poetic Interlude #7

The famous biologist and zoologist Louis Agassiz was born in Switzerland in 1807, but later went to the United States and taught at Harvard University. In 1857, there was a great celebration for his fiftieth birthday, and his friend Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was asked to write a poem in his honour. Kingsley chose these lines from "The Fiftieth Birthday of Agassiz" to send Tom off on his journey.

And Nature, the old Nurse, took
The child upon her knee,
Saying, 'Here is a story book
Thy father hath written for thee.

'Come wander with me,' she said,
'Into regions yet untrod,
And read what is still unread
In the Manuscripts of God.'

And he wandered away and away
With Nature, the dear old Nurse,
Who sang to him night and day
The rhymes of the universe.

Reading #23


Tom sets off on his journey to the Other-end-of-Nowhere. But he doesn't have a map or clear directions, as Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid says it's better for him to figure out the way for himself.


propeller: This type of ship was powered by a steam engine, and propelled by one or more large "screws" or propellers. It replaced an earlier type of steamboat, the paddle steamer, and it would still have been fairly new (and exciting) in Kingsley's day.

deep black widow's weeds: mourning clothes

King of the Herrings: probably the giant oarfish (the world's longest bony fish)

sprat: small fish

Gairfowl [or Garefowl]: the Great Auk, a flightless bird that became extinct by the middle of the nineteenth century

bedizened: gaudily dressed or decorated


Mother Carey: A figure representing the power of the sea, and especially its storms. Kingsley did not create this name himself; "Mother Carey" was known to sailors in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and has been used in other works of literature such as the novel Moby-Dick. It is thought that her name might come from the Latin words Mater cara, "dear mother."


Part One

"Now," said Tom, "I am ready to be off, if it's to the world's end."

"Ah!" said the fairy, "that is a brave, good boy. But you must go farther than the world's end, if you want to find Mr. Grimes; for he is at the Other-end-of-Nowhere. You must go to Shiny Wall, and through the white gate that never was opened; and then you will come to Peacepool, and Mother Carey's Haven, where the good whales go when they die. And there Mother Carey will tell you the way to the Other-end-of-Nowhere, and there you will find Mr. Grimes."

"Oh, dear!" said Tom. "But I do not know my way to Shiny Wall, or where it is at all."

"Little boys must take the trouble to find out things for themselves, or they will never grow to be men; so that you must ask all the beasts in the sea and the birds in the air, and if you have been good to them, some of them will tell you the way to Shiny Wall."

"Well," said Tom, "it will be a long journey, so I had better start at once. Good-bye, Miss Ellie; you know I am getting [to be] a big boy, and I must go out and see the world."

"I know you must," said Ellie; "but you will not forget me, Tom. I shall wait here till you come." And she shook hands with him, and bade him good-bye. Tom longed very much again to kiss her; but he thought it would not be respectful, considering she was a lady born; so he promised not to forget her: but his little whirlabout of a head was so full of the notion of going out to see the world, that it forgot her in five minutes: however, though his head forgot her, I am glad to say his heart did not.

Part Two

So he asked all the beasts in the sea, and all the birds in the air, but none of them knew the way to Shiny Wall. For why? He was still too far down south.

Then he met a ship, far larger than he had ever seen--a gallant ocean-steamer, with a long cloud of smoke trailing behind; and he wondered how she went on without sails, and swam up to her to see. A school of dolphins were running races round and round her, going three feet for her one, and Tom asked them the way to Shiny Wall: but they did not know.

Then he tried to find out how she moved, and at last he saw her [propeller], and was so delighted with it that he played under her quarter[deck] all day, till he nearly had his nose knocked off by the fans, and thought it time to move. Then he watched the sailors upon deck, and the ladies, with their bonnets and parasols: but none of them could see him, because their eyes were not opened--as, indeed, most people's eyes are not.

At last there came out into the quarter-gallery a very pretty lady, in deep black widow's weeds, and in her arms a baby. She leaned over the quarter-gallery, and looked back and back toward England far away; and as she looked she sang:

Soft soft wind, from out the sweet south sliding,
Waft thy silver cloud-webs athwart the summer sea;
Thin thin threads of mist on dewy fingers twining
Weave a veil of dappled gauze to shade my babe and me.

Deep deep Love, within thine own abyss abiding,
Pour Thyself abroad, O Lord, on earth and air and sea;
Worn weary hearts within Thy holy temple hiding,
Shield from sorrow, sin, and shame my helpless babe and me.

Her voice was so soft and low, and the music of the air so sweet, that Tom could have listened to it all day. But as she held the baby over the gallery rail, to show it the dolphins leaping and the water gurgling in the ship's wake, lo! and behold, the baby saw Tom. He was quite sure of that; for when their eyes met, the baby smiled and held out his hands; and Tom smiled and held out his hands too; and the baby kicked and leaped, as if it wanted to jump overboard to him.

"What do you see, my darling?" said the lady; and her eyes followed the baby's till she too caught sight of Tom, swimming about among the foam-beads below.

She gave a little shriek and start; and then she said, quite quietly,

"Babies in the sea? Well, perhaps it is the happiest place for them" [omission for content].

And Tom turned away northward, sad and wondering, and watched the great steamer slide away into the dusk, and the lights on board peep out one by one, and die out again, and the long bar of smoke fade away into the evening mist, till all was out of sight.

Part Three

And he swam northward again, day after day, till at last he met the King of the Herrings, with a curry-comb growing out of his nose, and a sprat in his mouth for a cigar. Tom asked him the way to Shiny Wall; so he bolted his sprat head foremost, and said: "If I were you, young gentleman, I should go to the Allalonestone, and ask the last of the Gairfowl. She is of a very ancient clan, very nearly as ancient as my own; and knows a good deal which these modern upstarts don't, as ladies of old houses are likely to do."

Tom asked his way to her, and the King of the Herrings told him very kindly, for he was a courteous old gentleman of the old school, though he was horribly ugly, and strangely bedizened too [omission]. But just as Tom had thanked him and set off, he called after him: "Hi! I say, can you fly?"

"I never tried," says Tom. "Why?"

"Because, if you can, I should advise you to say nothing to the old lady about it. There; take a hint. Good-bye."

Narration and Discussion

Why do you think the woman and the baby could see Tom, when the others could not?

What do you think Tom will do if he finds Mr. Grimes?

Reading #24


The Gairfowl is not a great deal of help; but Mother Carey's "chickens" agree to show Tom the way to Shiny Wall.


marrocks, dovekies, razorbills: seabirds related to the great auk.

noblesse oblige: (French) Nobility is more than just entitlement; in other words, great privilege requires great responsibility.

deceased: dead. Tom thinks she is saying diseased.

petrels: storm petrels, also called "Mother Carey's Chickens"


Jan Mayen's Land: an island in the Arctic Ocean


Part One

And away Tom went for seven days and seven nights due north-west, till he came to a great cod bank, the like of which he never saw before. The great cod lay below in tens of thousands, and gobbled shell-fish all day long; and the blue sharks roved above in hundreds, and gobbled them when they came up. So they ate, and ate, and ate each other, as they had done since the making of the world; for no man had come here yet to catch them, and find out how rich old Mother Carey is.

And there he saw the last of the Gairfowl, standing up on the Allalonestone, all alone. And a very grand old lady she was, full three feet high, and bolt upright, like some old Highland chieftainess. She had on a black velvet gown, and a white [omission] apron, and a very high bridge to her nose (which is a sure mark of high breeding), and a large pair of white spectacles on it, which made her look rather odd: but it was the ancient fashion of her house.

And instead of wings, she had two little feathery arms, with which she fanned herself, and complained of the dreadful heat; and she kept on crooning an old song to herself, which she learnt when she was a little baby-bird, long ago--

Two little birds they sat on a stone,
One swam away, and then there was one,
            With a fal-lal-la-lady.

The other swam after, and then there was none,
And so the poor stone was left all alone;
            With a fal-lal-la-lady.

It was "flew" away, properly, and not "swam" away: but, as she could not fly, she had a right to alter it. However, it was a very fit song for her to sing, because she was a lady herself.

Tom came up to her very humbly, and made his bow; and the first thing she said was-- "Have you wings? Can you fly?"

"Oh, dear, no, ma'am; I should not think of such a thing," said cunning little Tom.

"Then I shall have great pleasure in talking to you, my dear. It is quite refreshing nowadays to see anything without wings. They must all have wings, forsooth, now, every new upstart sort of bird, and fly. What can they want with flying, and raising themselves above their proper station in life? In the days of my ancestors no birds ever thought of having wings, and did very well without; and now they all laugh at me because I keep to the good old fashion. Why, the very marrocks and dovekies have got wings, the vulgar creatures, and poor little ones enough they are; and my own cousins too, the razorbills, who are gentlefolk born, and ought to know better than to ape their inferiors."

And so she was running on, while Tom tried to get in a word edgeways; and at last he did, when the old lady got out of breath, and began fanning herself again; and then he asked if she knew the way to Shiny Wall. This is what she said:

Shiny Wall? Who should know better than I? We all came from Shiny Wall, thousands of years ago, when it was decently cold, and the climate was fit for gentlefolk; but now, what with the heat, and what with these vulgar-winged things who fly up and down and eat everything, so that gentlepeople's hunting is all spoilt, and one really cannot get one's living, or hardly venture off the rock for fear of being flown against by some creature that would not have dared to come within a mile of one a thousand years ago-- What was I saying? Why, we have quite gone down in the world, my dear, and have nothing left but our honour. And I am the last of my family. A friend of mine and I came and settled on this rock when we were young, to be out of the way of low people. Once we were a great nation, and spread over all the Northern Isles. But men shot us so, and knocked us on the head, and took our eggs--why, if you will believe it, they say that on the coast of Labrador the sailors used to lay a plank from the rock on board the thing called their ship, and drive us along the plank by hundreds, till we tumbled down into the ship's waist in heaps; and then, I suppose, they ate us, the nasty fellows!

Well--but--what was I saying? At last, there were none of us left, except on the old Gairfowlskerry, just off the Iceland coast, up which no man could climb. Even there we had no peace; for one day, when I was quite a young girl, the land rocked, and the sea boiled, and the sky grew dark, and all the air was filled with smoke and dust, and down tumbled the old Gairfowlskerry into the sea.

The dovekies and marrocks, of course, all flew away; but we were too proud to do that. Some of us were dashed to pieces, and some drowned; and those who were left got away to Eldey, and the dovekies tell me they are all dead now, and that another Gairfowlskerry has risen out of the sea close to the old one, but that it is such a poor flat place that it is not safe to live on: and so here I am left alone.

This was the Gairfowl's story, and, strange as it may seem, it is every word of it true.

"If you only had had wings!" said Tom; "then you might all have flown away too."

"Yes, young gentleman: and if people are not gentlemen and ladies, and forget that noblesse oblige, they will find it as easy to get on in the world as other people who don't care what they do. Why, if I had not recollected that noblesse oblige, I should not have been all alone now." And the poor old lady sighed.

"How was that, ma'am?"

"Why, my dear, a gentleman came hither with me, and after we had been here some time, he wanted to marry--in fact, he actually proposed to me. Well, I can't blame him; I was young, and very handsome then, I don't deny: but, you see, I could not hear of such a thing, because he was my deceased sister's husband, you see?"

"Of course not, ma'am," said Tom; though, of course, he knew nothing about it. "She was very much diseased, I suppose?"

"You do not understand me, my dear. I mean, that being a lady, and with right and honourable feelings, as our house always has had, I felt it my duty to snub him, and howk him, and peck him continually, to keep him at his proper distance; and, to tell the truth, I once pecked him a little too hard, poor fellow, and he tumbled backwards off the rock, and--really, it was very unfortunate, but it was not my fault--a shark coming by saw him flapping, and snapped him up. And since then I have lived all alone--

with a fal-lal-la-lady.

"And soon I shall be gone, my little dear, and nobody will miss me; and then the poor stone will be left all alone."

"But, please, which is the way to Shiny Wall?" said Tom.

"Oh, you must go, my little dear--you must go. Let me see--I am sure--that is--really, my poor old brains are getting quite puzzled. Do you know, my little dear, I am afraid, if you want to know, you must ask some of these vulgar birds about, for I have quite forgotten."

And the poor old Gairfowl began to cry tears of pure oil; and Tom was quite sorry for her; and for himself too, for he was at his wit's end whom to ask.

Part Three

But by there came a flock of petrels, who are Mother Carey's own chickens; and Tom thought them much prettier than Lady Gairfowl, and so perhaps they were; for Mother Carey had had a great deal of fresh experience between the time that she invented the Gairfowl and the time that she invented them. They flitted along like a flock of black swallows, and hopped and skipped from wave to wave, lifting up their little feet behind them so daintily, and whistling to each other so tenderly, that Tom fell in love with them at once, and called them to know the way to Shiny Wall.

"Shiny Wall? Do you want Shiny Wall? Then come with us, and we will show you. We are Mother Carey's own chickens, and she sends us out over all the seas, to show the good birds the way home." Tom was delighted, and swam off to them, after he had made his bow to the Gairfowl. But she would not return his bow: but held herself bolt upright, and wept tears of oil as she sang:

And so the poor stone was left all alone;
            With a fal-lal-la-lady.

[omission for length and content]

Part Four

And now Tom was all agog to start for Shiny Wall; but the petrels said not. They must go first to [the island of] Allfowlsness, and wait there for the great gathering of all the sea-birds, before they start for their summer breeding places far away in the Northern Isles; and there they would be sure to find some birds which were going to Shiny Wall: but where Allfowlsness was, he must promise never to tell, lest men should go there and shoot the birds, and stuff them, and put them into [dull] museums, instead of leaving them to play and breed and work in Mother Carey's water-garden, where they ought to be.

[omission for length and content]

And after a while the birds began to gather at Allfowlsness, in thousands and tens of thousands, blackening all the air: swans and brant geese, harlequins and eiders, harolds and garganeys, smews and gossanders, divers and loons, grebes and dovekies, auks and razorbills, gannets and petrels, skuas and terns, with gulls beyond all naming or numbering; and they paddled and washed and splashed and combed and brushed themselves on the sand, till the shore was white with feathers; and they quacked and clucked and gabbled and chattered and screamed and whooped as they talked over matters with their friends, and settled where they were to go and breed that summer, till you might have heard them ten miles off; and lucky it was for them that there was no one to hear them but the old keeper, who lived all alone upon the Ness, in a turf hut thatched with heather and fringed round with great stones slung across the roof by bent-ropes, lest the winter gales should blow the hut right away [omission].

Then the petrels asked this bird and that whether they would take Tom to Shiny Wall: but one set was going to Sutherland, and one to the Shetlands, and one to Norway, and one to Spitzbergen, and one to Iceland, and one to Greenland: but none would go to Shiny Wall. So the good-natured petrels said that they would show him part of the way themselves, but they were only going as far as Jan Mayen's Land; and after that he must shift for himself.

And then all the birds rose up, and streamed away in long black lines, north, and north-east, and north-west, across the bright blue summer sky; and their cry was like ten thousand packs of hounds, and ten thousand peals of bells [omission].

Narration and Discussion

Why does the gairfowl think it better not to have wings?

For further thought: What do you think about noblesse oblige? Compare this with Luke 12:48.

Creative narration: Imagine that the Gairfowl is still standing on the rock. Send someone to interview her and ask her opinion on the world today.

Reading #25


After discovering a shipwreck, Tom acquires a "water-dog." The two of them get all the way to Shiny Wall, with the help of some birds, but there is no gate in sight. However, Tom discovers his own way in.


gale: wind storm

right abaft: a sailing term meaning "at our stern," or "behind us." Kingsley may have been thinking of an old sea song that goes "Come, come, my brave boys, / the wind's right abaft."

billows: waves

new water-baby: Kingsley seems to break his own rule here, as he has said before that the water-babies are children who die from abuse or neglect; and others (like Ellie) go to the "beautiful place." However, as Kingsley would point out, this is a fairy tale, and it does not always have to be consistent.

molly-mock, molly: mollymawk, or sooty albatross; a large seabird

blubber: the fat of a sea mammal, especially a whale or seal

lubbers: short for "landlubbers," those unfamiliar with sailing

you won't earn your discharge from her: Kingsley is playing here with the idea of reincarnation. The old whalers who were "saucy and greedy" are now forced to live as seabirds, until Mother Carey decides they have "done their time."

a good plucked one: a brave boy

pack: pack ice; the sea ice cover in the Arctic

if you have pluck: if you are brave enough

here goes for a header: something like "here goes nothing"


Part One

And, as Tom and the petrels went north-eastward, it began to blow right hard [omission]. But [they] never cared, for the gale was right abaft, and away they went over the crests of the billows, as merry as so many flying-fish.

And at last they saw an ugly sight--the black side of a great ship, water-logged in the trough of the sea. Her funnel and her masts were overboard, and swayed and surged under her lee; her decks were swept as clean as a barn floor, and there was no living soul on board.

The petrels flew up to her, and wailed round her; for they were very sorry indeed, and also they expected to find some salt pork; and Tom scrambled on board of her and looked round, frightened and sad. And there, in a little cot, lashed tight under the bulwark, lay a baby fast asleep; the very same baby, Tom saw at once, which he had seen in the singing lady's arms. He went up to it, and wanted to wake it; but behold, from under the cot out jumped a little black and tan terrier dog, and began barking and snapping at Tom, and would not let him touch the cot.

Tom knew the dog's teeth could not hurt him: but at least it could shove him away, and did; and he and the dog fought and struggled, for he wanted to help the baby, and did not want to throw the poor dog overboard: but as they were struggling, [there came a tall green wave, which rolled in over the side of the ship, and swept them all into the sea].

"Oh, the baby, the baby!" screamed Tom: but the next moment he did not scream at all; for he saw the cot settling down through the green water, with the baby, smiling in it, fast asleep; and he saw the fairies come up from below, and carry baby and cradle gently down in their soft arms; and then he knew it was all right, and that there would be a new water-baby in St. Brendan's Isle.

And the poor little dog? Why, after he had kicked and coughed a little, he sneezed so hard, that he sneezed himself clean out of his skin, and turned into a water-dog, and jumped and danced round Tom, and ran over the crests of the waves, and snapped at the jelly-fish and the mackerel, and followed Tom the whole way to the Other-end-of-Nowhere.

Part Two

Then they went on again, till they began to see the peak of Jan Mayen's Land, standing up like a white sugar-loaf, two miles above the clouds. And there they fell in with a whole flock of molly-mocks, who were feeding on a dead whale.

"These are the fellows to show you the way," said Mother Carey's chickens; "we cannot help you farther north. We don't like to get among the ice pack, for fear it should nip our toes: but the mollys dare fly anywhere." So the petrels called to the mollys: but they were so busy and greedy, gobbling and pecking and spluttering and fighting over the blubber, that they did not take the least notice.

"Come, come," said the petrels, "you lazy greedy lubbers, this young gentleman is going to Mother Carey, and if you don't attend on him, you won't earn your discharge from her, you know."

"Greedy we are," says a great fat old molly, "but lazy we ain't; and, as for lubbers, we're no more lubbers than you. Let's have a look at the lad." And he flapped right into Tom's face, and stared at him in the most impudent way (for the mollys are audacious fellows, as all whalers know), and then asked him where he hailed from, and what land he sighted last. And, when Tom told him, he seemed pleased, and said he was a good plucked one to have got so far.

"Come along, lads," he said to the rest, "and give this little chap a cast over the pack, for Mother Carey's sake. We've eaten blubber enough for today, and we'll e'en work out a bit of our time by helping the lad." So the mollys took Tom up on their backs, and flew off with him, laughing and joking [omission].

"Who are you, you jolly birds?" asked Tom.

"We are the spirits of the old Greenland skippers (as every sailor knows), who hunted here, right whales and horse-whales, full hundreds of years agone. But, because we were saucy and greedy, we were all turned into mollys, to eat whale's blubber all our days. But lubbers we are none, and could sail a ship now against any man in the North seas, though we don't hold with this new-fangled steam. And it's a shame of those black imps of petrels to call us so; but because they're her grace's pets, they think they may say anything they like."

[omission for length and content]

Part Three

And now they came to the edge of the pack, and beyond it they could see Shiny Wall looming, through mist, and snow, and storm. But the pack rolled horribly upon the swell, and the ice giants fought and roared, and leapt upon each other's backs, and ground each other to powder, so that Tom was afraid to venture among them, lest he should be ground to powder too [omission]. But the good mollys took Tom and his dog up, and flew with them safe over the pack and the roaring ice giants, and set them down at the foot of Shiny Wall.

"And where is the gate?" asked Tom.

"There is no gate," said the mollys.

"No gate?" cried Tom, aghast.

"None; never a crack of one, and that's the whole of the secret, as better fellows, lad, than you have found to their cost [omission]."

"What am I to do, then?"

"Dive under the floe, to be sure, if you have pluck."

"I've not come so far to turn now," said Tom; "so here goes for a header."

"A lucky voyage to you, lad," said the mollys; "we knew you were one of the right sort. So good-bye."

"Why don't you come too?" asked Tom.

But the mollys only wailed sadly, "We can't go yet, we can't go yet," and flew away over the pack. So Tom dived under [the ice], and went on in black darkness, at the bottom of the sea, for seven days and seven nights. And yet he was not a bit frightened. Why should he be? He was a brave English lad, whose business is to go out and see all the world.

Narration and Discussion

Do you think Tom has "pluck?"

What do you think of the mollys?

For further thought: Whalers become mollymocks, orphaned babies go to St. Brendan's Isle, and abandoned dogs become water-dogs. Did Charles Kingsley, who was a priest in the Church of England, believe that the Bible taught these things? (Probably not.) It seems that we have to go by the fairy tale rules, whether those take us to the Other-end-of-Nowhere, or to the Lone Islands.

The coracle went more and more quickly, and beautifully it rushed up the wave's side. For one split second they saw its shape and Reepicheep's on the very top. Then it vanished, and since that moment no one can truly claim to have seen Reepicheep the Mouse. But my belief is that he came safe to Aslan's country and is alive there to this day. (C. S. Lewis, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader)

Reading #26


Tom finally finds Mother Carey, who tells him that the way to the Other-end-of-Nowhere is . . . to go backwards.


fathoms: One fathom is six feet long (1.8 m).

conjuring tricks: magic tricks

harpoon and lance them: kill them with spears

salpae: the plural form of salp or salpa, a kind of plankton, which are very small creatures that fish and whales like to eat

all the ills which flesh is heir to: The original Greek myth does not get as specific as Mother Carey (or Kingsley) does, and, while we agree with the undesirability of tight shoes and unpaid bills, we are not certain why potatoes are included among the world's evils. For everyone's sake, we have shortened the list a bit.

lucifers: matches

he set the Thames on fire: Again, that is not exactly the way the original story goes, but Mother Carey's version will do for now.

as if you saw it in a looking-glass: Perhaps this idea also interested Lewis Carroll. (Have you read Through the Looking-Glass yet?)


Julius Caesar: When Julius Caesar was being stabbed, he is said to have drawn his toga around his legs, so that he would be properly covered and "die decently."

Prometheus: Mentioned here and there in The Heroes. One of the Titans (the original Greek gods), and associated with fire. His name literally means "Fore-thought."

Epimetheus: Another Titan, whose name means "After-thought" or "Hindsight."


Mount Erebus: the second-highest volcano in Antarctica


Part One

And at last he saw the light, and clear clear water overhead; and up he came a thousand fathoms, among clouds of sea-moths, which fluttered round his head. There were moths with pink heads and wings and opal bodies, that flapped about slowly; moths with brown wings that flapped about quickly; yellow shrimps that hopped and skipped most quickly of all; and jellies of all the colours in the world, that neither hopped nor skipped, but only dawdled and yawned, and would not get out of his way.

The dog snapped at them till his jaws were tired; but Tom hardly minded them at all, he was so eager to get to the top of the water, and see the pool where the good whales go. And a very large pool it was, miles and miles across, though the air was so clear that the ice cliffs on the opposite side looked as if they were close at hand. All round it the ice cliffs rose, in walls and spires and battlements, and caves and bridges, and stones and galleries, in which the ice-fairies live, and drive away the storms and clouds, that Mother Carey's pool may lie calm from year's end to year's end.

And the sun acted [as a] policeman, and walked round outside every day, peeping just over the top of the ice wall, to see that all went right; and now and then he played conjuring tricks, or had an exhibition of fireworks, to amuse the ice-fairies. For he would make himself into four or five suns at once, or paint the sky with rings and crosses and crescents of white fire, and stick himself in the middle of them, and wink at the fairies; and I daresay they were very much amused; for anything's fun in the country.

And there the good whales lay, the happy sleepy beasts, upon the still oily sea. They were all right whales, you must know, and finners, and razorbacks, and bottlenoses, and spotted sea-unicorns with long ivory horns. But the sperm whales are such raging, ramping, roaring, rumbustious fellows, that, if Mother Carey let them in, there would be no more peace in Peacepool. So she packs them away in a great pond by themselves at the South Pole, two hundred and sixty-three miles south-south-east of Mount Erebus, the great volcano in the ice; and there they butt each other with their ugly noses, day and night from year's end to year's end.

But here there were only good quiet beasts, lying about like the black hulls of sloops, and blowing every now and then jets of white steam, or sculling round with their huge mouths open, for the sea-moths to swim down their throats. There were no threshers there to thresh their poor old backs, or swordfish to stab their stomachs, or sawfish to rip them up, or ice-sharks to bite lumps out of their sides, or whalers to harpoon and lance them. They were quite safe and happy there; and all they had to do was to wait quietly in Peacepool, till Mother Carey sent for them to make them out of old beasts into new.

Tom swam up to the nearest whale, and asked the way to Mother Carey.

"There she sits in the middle," said the whale. Tom looked; but he could see nothing in the middle of the pool, but one peaked iceberg; and he said so.

"That's Mother Carey," said the whale, "as you will find when you get to her. There she sits making old beasts into new all the year round."

"How does she do that?"

"That's her concern, not mine," said the old whale; and yawned so wide (for he was very large) that there swam into his mouth 943 sea-moths, 13,846 jelly-fish no bigger than pins' heads, a string of salpae nine yards long, and forty-three little ice-crabs, who gave each other a parting pinch all round, tucked their legs under their stomachs, and determined to die decently, like Julius Caesar.

"I suppose," said Tom, "she cuts up a great whale like you into a whole shoal of porpoises?" At which the old whale laughed so violently that he coughed up all the creatures; who swam away again very thankful at having escaped out of that terrible whalebone net of his, from which [omission] no traveler returns; and Tom went on to the iceberg, wondering.

Part Two

And, when he came near it, it took the form of the grandest old lady he had ever seen--a white marble lady, sitting on a white marble throne. And from the foot of the throne there swum away, out and out into the sea, millions of new-born creatures, of more shapes and colours than man ever dreamed. And they were Mother Carey's children, whom she makes out of the sea-water all day long.

He expected, of course--like some grown people who ought to know better--to find her snipping, piecing, fitting, stitching, cobbling, basting, filing, planing, hammering, turning, polishing, moulding, measuring, chiseling, clipping, and so forth, as men do when they go to work to make anything.

But, instead of that, she sat quite still with her chin upon her hand, looking down into the sea with two great grand blue eyes, as blue as the sea itself. Her hair was as white as the snow--for she was very very old--in fact, as old as anything which you are likely to come across, except the difference between right and wrong. And, when she saw Tom, she looked at him very kindly.

"What do you want, my little man? It is long since I have seen a water-baby here." Tom told her his errand, and asked the way to the Other-end-of-Nowhere.

"You ought to know yourself, for you have been there already."

"Have I, ma'am? I'm sure I forget all about it."

"Then look at me." And, as Tom looked into her great blue eyes, he recollected the way perfectly. Now, was not that strange?

"Thank you, ma'am," said Tom. "Then I won't trouble your ladyship anymore; I hear you are very busy."

"I am never more busy than I am now," she said, without stirring a finger.

"I heard, ma'am, that you were always making new beasts out of old."

"So people fancy. But I am not going to trouble myself to make things, my little dear. I sit here and make them make themselves."

"You are a clever fairy, indeed," thought Tom. And he was quite right.

[omission for length]

"And now, my pretty little man," said Mother Carey, "you are sure you know the way to the Other-end-of-Nowhere?" Tom thought; and behold, he had forgotten it utterly.

"That is because you took your eyes off me." Tom looked at her again, and recollected; and then looked away, and forgot in an instant.

"But what am I to do, ma'am? For I can't keep looking at you when I am somewhere else."

"You must do without me, as most people have to do, for nine-hundred-and ninety-nine-thousandths of their lives; and look at the dog instead; for he knows the way well enough, and will not forget it. Besides, you may meet some very [odd] people there, who will not let you pass without this passport of mine, which you must hang round your neck and take care of; and, of course, as the dog will always go behind you, you must go the whole way backward."

"Backward!" cried Tom. "Then I shall not be able to see my way."

"On the contrary, if you look forward, you will not see a step before you, and be certain to go wrong; but, if you look behind you, and watch carefully whatever you have passed, and especially keep your eye on the dog, who goes by instinct, and therefore can't go wrong, then you will know what is coming next, as plainly as if you saw it in a looking-glass."

Tom was very much astonished: but he obeyed her, for he had learnt always to believe what the fairies told him.

Part Three: An Old Story In the Story

"So it is, my dear child," said Mother Carey; "and I will tell you a story, which will show you that I am perfectly right, as it is my custom to be.

"Once on a time, there were two brothers. One was called Prometheus, because he always looked before him, and boasted that he was wise beforehand. The other was called Epimetheus, because he always looked behind him, and did not boast at all; but said humbly [omission] that he had sooner prophesy after the event.

"Well, Prometheus was a very clever fellow, of course, and invented all sorts of wonderful things. But, unfortunately, when they were set to work, to work was just what they would not do: wherefore very little has come of them, and very little is left of them; and now nobody knows what they were, save a few archaeological old gentlemen who scratch in [strange] corners.

"But Epimetheus was a very slow fellow, certainly, and men called him a clod, and a muff, and a milksop, and a slowcoach, and a bloke, and a boodle, and so forth. And very little he did, for many years: but what he did, he never had to do over again.

"And what happened at last? There came to the two brothers the most beautiful creature that ever was seen, Pandora by name; which means 'All the gifts of the gods.' But because she had a strange box in her hand, this fanciful, forecasting, suspicious, prudential, theoretical, deductive, prophesying Prometheus, who was always settling what was going to happen, would have nothing to do with pretty Pandora and her box.

"But Epimetheus took her and it, as he took everything that came; and married her for better for worse, as every man ought, whenever he has even the chance of a good wife. And they opened the box between them, of course, to see what was inside: for, else, of what possible use could it have been to them?

"And out flew all the ills which flesh is heir to; all the children of the four great Bogies [which are] Self-will, Ignorance, Fear, and Dirt. [Things like measles, unpaid bills, wars, potatoes, bad doctors, and shoes that pinch your feet.] And, worst of all, Naughty Boys and Girls.

"But one thing remained at the bottom of the box, and that was, Hope.

"So Epimetheus got a great deal of trouble, as most men do in this world; but he got the three best things in the world into the bargain--a good wife, and experience, and hope.

"[Now, we have not forgotten Prometheus.] Prometheus kept on looking before him so far ahead, that as he was running about with a box of lucifers [matches] (which were the only useful things he ever invented, and do as much harm as good), he trod on his own nose, and tumbled down [omission]; whereby he set the Thames on fire; and they have hardly put it out again yet. So he had to be chained to the top of a mountain, with a vulture by him to give him a peck whenever he stirred.

"But [omission] old Epimetheus went working and grubbing on, with the help of his wife Pandora, always looking behind him to see what had happened, till he really learnt to know now and then what would happen next; and understood so well which side his bread was buttered, and which way the cat jumped, that he began to make things which would work, and go on working, too; till at last he grew very rich and fat, and people thought twice before they meddled with him [omission].

"And his children are the men of science, who get good lasting work done in the world; but the children of Prometheus are [omission] the noisy, windy people, who go telling silly folk what will happen, instead of looking to see what has happened already."

[Tom thought that was a good story. But what happened when he tried to go backwards?]

Part Four

He was very sorely tried; for though, by keeping the dog to heels (or rather to toes, for he had to walk backward), he could see pretty well which way the dog was hunting, yet it was much slower work to go backwards than to go forwards. But, what was more trying still, no sooner had he got out of Peacepool, than there came running to him [all sorts of prophets and fortune-tellers], all bawling and screaming at him, "Look ahead, only look ahead; and we will show you what man never saw before, and right away to the end of the world!"

But I am proud to say that Tom was such a little dogged, hard, gnarly, foursquare brick of an English boy, that he never turned his head round once all the way from Peacepool to the Other-end-of-Nowhere; but [he] kept his eye on the dog, and let him pick out the scent, hot or cold, straight or crooked, wet or dry, up hill or down dale; by which means he never made a single mistake, and saw all the wonderful and hitherto by-no-mortal-man-imagined things which it is my duty to relate to you in the next chapter.

Narration and Discussion

Well, we weren't expecting a whole Greek myth in the middle of The Water-Babies, were we? Why is it important, according to Mother Carey, to keep looking backwards? How can that help us, like Epimetheus, to know (at least "now and then") what might happen next?

Creative narration: Kingsley's version of Pandora's box is not too serious--or at least we should say that he used his imagination to embellish it a bit. If you were to draw such a box (and you don't hate potatoes), what would you put in it? (Don't forget to add some Hope at the bottom.)

Poetic Interlude #8

To begin the last chapter, Kingsley chose the beginning and ending stanzas of Longfellow's poem "Children." [This is included in AO's Year Five collection of poems.]

Come to me, O ye children!
For I hear you at your play;
And the questions that perplexed me
Have vanished quite away.

Ye open the Eastern windows,
That look towards the sun,
Where thoughts are singing swallows,
And the brooks of morning run.

For what are all our contrivings
And the wisdom of our books,
When compared with your caresses,
And the gladness of your looks?

Ye are better than all the ballads
That ever were sung or said;
For ye are living poems,
And all the rest are dead.

Reading #27


Tom's travels now get him into some seriously strange places.


world-pap: We might translate this as "the biscuit dough that shapes the earth."

foul: disgusting, polluted

gruel: thin oatmeal porridge (something Kingsley considers one of the world's evils)

silt: sandy stuff

stupid: boring, dull, without purpose

slops, messes, tuck: these are all words referring to food. If you have been to camp, you might have eaten in the "mess hall," and bought snacks at the "tuck shop."

gastrocnemius muscle: at the back of the leg


Polupragmosyne: This is very close to a Greek word meaning "meddlesome," which the people there certainly are.



Here begins the never-to-be-too-much-studied account of the nine-hundred-and-ninety-ninth part of the wonderful things which Tom saw on his journey to the Other-end-of-Nowhere; which all good little children are requested to read; that, if ever they get to the Other-end-of-Nowhere, as they may very probably do, they may not burst out laughing, or try to run away, or do any other silly vulgar thing which may offend Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid.

Part One

Now, as soon as Tom had left Peacepool, he came to the white lap of the great sea-mother, ten thousand fathoms deep; where she makes world-pap all day long, for the steam-giants to knead, and the fire-giants to bake, till it has risen and hardened into mountain-loaves and island-cakes. And there Tom was very near being kneaded up in the world-pap, and turned into a fossil water-baby; which would have astonished the Geological Society of New Zealand some hundreds of thousands of years hence.

For, as he walked along in the silence of the sea-twilight, on the soft white ocean floor, he was aware of a hissing, and a roaring, and a thumping, and a pumping, as of all the steam-engines in the world at once. And, when he came near, the water grew boiling-hot; not that that hurt him in the least: but it also grew as foul as gruel; and every moment he stumbled over dead shells, and fish, and sharks, and seals, and whales, which had been killed by the hot water.

And at last he came to the great sea-serpent himself, lying dead at the bottom; and as he was too thick to scramble over, Tom had to walk round him three-quarters of a mile and more, which put him out of his path sadly; and, when he had got round, he came to the place called Stop. And there he stopped, and just in time.

For he was on the edge of a vast hole in the bottom of the sea, up which was rushing and roaring clear steam enough to work all the engines in the world at once; so clear, indeed, that it was quite light at moments; and Tom could see almost up to the top of the water above, and down below into the pit for nobody knows how far.

But, as soon as he bent his head over the edge, he got such a rap on the nose from pebbles, that he jumped back again; for the steam, as it rushed up, rasped away the sides of the hole, and hurled it up into the sea in a shower of mud and gravel and ashes; and then it spread all around, and sank again, and covered in the dead fish so fast, that before Tom had stood there five minutes he was buried in silt up to his ankles, and began to be afraid that he should have been buried alive.

[omission for length]

But, all of a sudden, somebody shut off the steam below, and the hole was left empty in an instant; and then down rushed the water into the hole in a whirlpool, [and in went Tom as well]. And, when he got to the bottom, he swam till he was washed on shore safe upon the Other-end-of-Nowhere; and he found it, to his surprise, as most other people do, much more like This-End-of-Somewhere than he had been in the habit of expecting.

Part Two

First he went through Waste-paper-land, where all the stupid books lie in heaps, up hill and down dale, like leaves in a winter wood; and there he saw people digging and grubbing among them, to make worse books out of bad ones [omission]; and a very good trade they drove thereby, especially among children.

Then he went by the sea of slops, to the mountain of messes, and the territory of tuck, where the ground was very sticky, for it was all made of bad toffee [omission], and full of deep cracks and holes choked with wind-fallen fruit, and green gooseberries, and sloes, and [crabapples], and hips and haws, and all the nasty things which little children will eat, if they can get them. But the fairies hide them out of the way in that country as fast as they can, and very hard work they have, and of very little use it is. For as fast as they hide away the old trash, foolish and wicked people make fresh trash full of lime and poisonous paints, and actually go and steal receipts out of old Madame Science's big book to invent poisons for little children, and sell them at [omission] fairs and tuck-shops. Very well. Let them go on [omission]. But the Fairy with the birch-rod will catch them all in time, and make them begin at one corner of their shops, and eat their way out at the other; by which time they will have got such stomach-aches as will cure them of poisoning little children.

Next he saw all the little people in the world, writing all the little books in the world, about all the other little people in the world; probably because they had no great people to write about: and if the names of the books were not Squeeky, nor the Pump-lighter, nor the Narrow Narrow World, nor the Hills of the Chattermuch, nor the Children's Twaddeday, why then they were something else. And all the rest of the little people in the world read the books, and thought themselves each as good as the President; and perhaps they were right, for everyone knows his own business best. But Tom thought he would sooner have a jolly good fairy tale, about Jack the Giant-killer or Beauty and the Beast, which taught him something that he didn't know already.


Part Three

Then came Tom to the Island of Polupragmosyne [omission], [where] everyone knows his neighbour's business better than his own; and a very noisy place it is, as might be expected, considering that all the inhabitants are [omission] always making wry mouths, and crying that the fairies' grapes were sour. Tom saw ploughs drawing horses, nails driving hammers, birds' nests taking boys, books making authors, bulls keeping china-shops, and monkeys shaving cats [omission]; and, in short, every one set to do something which he had not learnt, because in what he had learnt, or pretended to learn, he had failed.


When he got into the middle of the town, they all set on him at once, to show him his way; or rather, to show him that he did not know his way; for as for asking him what way he wanted to go, no one ever thought of that.

But one pulled him hither, and another poked him thither, and a third cried-- "You mustn't go west, I tell you; it is destruction to go west."

"But I am not going west, as you may see," said Tom.

And another, "The east lies here, my dear; I assure you this is the east."

"But I don't want to go east," said Tom.

"Well, then, at all events, whichever way you are going, you are going wrong," cried they all with one voice--which was the only thing which they ever agreed about; and all pointed at once to all the thirty-and-two points of the compass, till Tom thought all the sign-posts in England had got together, and fallen fighting.

And whether he would have ever escaped out of the town, it is hard to say, if the dog had not taken it into his head that they were going to pull his master in pieces, and tackled them so sharply about the gastrocnemius muscle, that he gave them some business of their own to think of at last; and while they were rubbing their bitten calves, Tom and the dog got safe away.

[omission for length]

Narration and Discussion

Would you rather read a good fairy tale, or something like Narrow Narrow World? (Kingsley obviously hopes you will choose the first.) What are your favourite books that are not "little books . . . about all the other little people in the world?"

Something was crawling. Worse still, something was coming out. Edmund or Lucy or you would have recognized it at once, but Eustace had read none of the right books . . . [his books] had a lot to say about exports and imports and governments and rains, but they were weak on dragons. (C. S. Lewis, The Voyage of the Dawn-Treader)

Kingsley wrote, "When he got into the middle of the town, they all set on him at once, to show him his way; or rather, to show him that he did not know his way; for as for asking him what way he wanted to go, no one ever thought of that." Have you ever been told a lot of different things to do, or not to do, by people who mean well but who, perhaps, forget to ask what it is you are trying to do in the first place? In this story, there was not much left to do but run. Can you think of any other ways to deal with a situation like that?

For further thought: Tom finds that the Other-end-of-Nowhere is "much more like This-End-of-Somewhere than he had been in the habit of expecting." Why might that be? How can we perhaps keep our part of This-End-of-Somewhere from turning into the Other-end-of-Nowhere?

Reading #28


While traveling through the Other-end-of-Nowhere, Tom meets a most peculiar giant, who gives him one good piece of advice.


hearsay: something you hear that cannot be proved; a rumor

fugleman: drill sergeant; one who shows the others what to do

remarked: noticed

made a truce: made peace

pick his brains: ask questions to find out what a person knows about something

tact: the ability to say or do the right thing without making people angry

Do the duty which lies nearest you, and catch the first beetle you come across: A variation on a quote by Thomas Carlyle (from his book Sartor Resartus): "Do the duty which lies nearest to thee, which thou knowest to be a duty! The second duty will already have become clearer."


Part One

Then came Tom to the great land of Hearsay, in which are no less than thirty and odd kings, beside half a dozen Republics, and perhaps more [omission]. And there he fell in with a deep, dark, deadly, and destructive war, waged by the princes and potentates of those parts, both spiritual and temporal, against what do you think? One thing I am sure of. That unless I told you, you would never know; nor how they waged that war either; for all their strategy and art military consisted in the safe and easy process of stopping their ears and screaming, "Oh, don't tell us!" and then running away.

So when Tom came into that land, he found them all, high and low, man, woman, and child, running for their lives day and night continually, and entreating not to be told they didn't know what: only the land being an island, and they having a dislike to the water (being a musty lot for the most part), they ran round and round the shore forever, which (as the island was exactly of the same circumference as the planet on which we have the honour of living) was hard work, especially to those who had business to look after.

But before them, as bandmaster and fugleman, ran a gentleman shearing a pig; the melodious strains of which animal led them forever, if not to conquest, still to flight; and kept up their spirits mightily with the thought that they would at least have the pig's wool for their pains.

And running after them, day and night, came such a poor, lean, seedy, hard-worked old giant, as ought to have been [treated well], and had a good dinner given him, and a good wife found him, and been set to play with little children; and then he would have been a very presentable old fellow after all; for he had a heart, though it was considerably overgrown with brains. He was made up principally of fish bones and parchment, put together with wire and Canada balsam; and smelt strongly of spirits, though he never drank anything but water [omission]. He had a great pair of spectacles on his nose, and a butterfly-net in one hand, and a geological hammer in the other; and was hung all over with pockets, full of collecting boxes, bottles, microscopes, telescopes, barometers, ordnance maps, scalpels, forceps, photographic apparatus, and all other tackle for finding out everything about everything, and a little more too. And, most strange of all, he was running not forwards but backwards, as fast as he could.

Away all the good folks ran from him, except Tom, who stood his ground and dodged between his legs; and the giant, when he had passed him, looked down, and cried, as if he was quite pleased and comforted,-- "What? who are you? And you actually don't run away, like all the rest?" But he had to take his spectacles off, Tom remarked, in order to see him plainly.

Part Two

Tom told him who he was; and the giant pulled out a bottle and a cork instantly, to collect him with. But Tom was too sharp for that, and dodged between his legs and in front of him; and then the giant could not see him at all.

"No, no, no!" said Tom, "I've not been round the world, and through the world, and up to Mother Carey's haven, besides being caught in a net and called a Holothurian and a Cephalopod, to be bottled up by any old giant like you."

And when the giant understood what a great traveler Tom had been, he made a truce with him at once, and would have kept him there to this day to pick his brains, so delighted was he at finding any one to tell him what he did not know before.

"Ah, you lucky little dog!" said he at last, quite simply--for he was the simplest, pleasantest, honestest, kindliest old [omission] giant that ever turned the world upside down without intending it-- "ah, you lucky little dog! If I had only been where you have been, to see what you have seen!"

"Well," said Tom, "if you want to do that, you had best put your head under water for a few hours, as I did, and turn into a water-baby, or some other baby, and then you might have a chance."

"Turn into a baby, eh? If I could do that, and know what was happening to me for but one hour, I should know everything then, and be at rest. But I can't; I can't be a little child again; and I suppose if I could, it would be no use, because then I should know nothing about what was happening to me. Ah, you lucky little dog!" said the poor old giant.

"But why do you run after all these poor people?" said Tom, who liked the giant very much.

"My dear, it's they that have been running after me [omission] for hundreds and hundreds of years, throwing stones at me till they have knocked off my spectacles fifty times, and calling me [all kinds of names]--and hunting me round and round--though catch me they can't, for every time I go over the same ground, I go the faster, and grow the bigger. While all I want is to be friends with them, and to tell them something to their advantage: only somehow they are so strangely afraid of hearing it. But, I suppose I am not a man of the world, and have no tact."

"But why don't you turn round and tell them so?"

"Because I can't. You see, I must go backwards, if I am to go at all."

"But why don't you stop, and let them come up to you?"

"Why, my dear, only think. If I did, all the butterflies and cockyolybirds would fly past me, and then I should catch no more new species, and should grow rusty and mouldy, and die. And I don't intend to do that, my dear; for I have a destiny before me, they say: though what it is I don't know, and don't care."

"Don't care?" said Tom.

"No. Do the duty which lies nearest you, and catch the first beetle you come across, is my motto; and I have thriven by it for some hundred years. Now I must go on. Dear me, while I have been talking to you, at least nine new species have escaped me."


So the giant ran round after the people, and the people ran round after the giant, and they are running unto this day for aught I know, or do not know; and will run till either he, or they, or both, turn into little children [omission].

Narration and Discussion

The giant seems to be a sort of scientist, with all his microscopes and cameras and everything. Why do the people run away from him? (The name of the country, Hearsay¸ might be a clue.)

What do you think of his advice to Tom?

Reading #29


Kingsley has a few things to say about education here, plus a great deal of nonsense about talking turnips.


Tomtoddy: tadpole, young frog

ringing little pigs: putting rings in their noses

mangold wurzel: a vegetable

taken up: arrested

upstairs, downstairs, in my lady's chamber: Refers to the nursery rhyme "Goosey Goosey Gander"

binding heavy burdens and grievous to be borne: Matthew 23:4


Captain Gulliver: the main character of Jonathan Swift's book Gulliver's Travels

Roger Ascham: an English scholar of the 16th century, known for his theories of education (he was also the tutor of Queen Elizabeth I)

King Edward the Sixth: the son of King Henry the Eighth, and brother of Elizabeth.


Isle of Laputa: an (imaginary) flying island in Gulliver's Travels

Aldershot on a field-day: Aldershot is a town in Hampshire, England, famous for its army training camp.


Part One

Then Tom came to a very famous island, which was called, in the days of the great traveler Captain Gulliver, the Isle of Laputa. But Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid has named it over again the Isle of Tomtoddies, all heads and no bodies.

And when Tom came near it, he heard such a grumbling and grunting and growling and wailing and weeping and whining that he thought people must be ringing little pigs, or cropping puppies' ears [omission]; but when he came nearer still, he began to hear words among the noise; which was the Tomtoddies' song which they sing morning and evening, and all night too [omission]--

"I can't learn my lessons: the examiner's coming!"

And that was the only song which they knew.

When Tom got on shore the first thing he saw was a great pillar, on one side of which was inscribed, "Playthings not allowed here"; at which he was so shocked that he would not stay to see what was written on the other side.

Then he looked round for the people of the island: but instead of men, women, and children, he found nothing but turnips and radishes, beet and mangold wurzel, without a single green leaf among them, and half of them burst and decayed, with toadstools growing out of them. Those which were left began crying to Tom, in half a dozen different languages at once, and all of them badly spoken, "I can't learn my lesson; do come and help me!"

And one cried, "Can you show me how to extract this square root?"

And another, "Can you tell me the distance between [alpha] Lyrae and [beta] Camelopardis?"

And another, "What is the latitude and longitude of Snooksville, in Noman's County, Oregon, U.S.?"

And another, "What was the name of Mutius Scaevola's thirteenth cousin's grandmother's maid's cat?"

And another, "How long would it take a school-inspector of average activity to tumble head over heels from London to York?"

And another, "Can you tell me the name of a place that nobody ever heard of, where nothing ever happened, in a country which has not been discovered yet?" [omission] And so on, and so on, and so on [omission].

"And what good on earth will it do you if I did tell you?" quoth Tom.

Well, they didn't know that: all they knew was the examiner was coming.

Part Two

Then Tom stumbled on the hugest and softest nimblecomequick turnip you ever saw [omission], and it cried to him, "Can you tell me anything at all about anything you like?"

"About what?" says Tom.

"About anything you like; for as fast as I learn things I forget them again. So my mamma says that my intellect is not adapted for methodic science, and says that I must go in for general information." Tom told him that he did not know General Information, nor any officers in the army; only he had a friend once that went for a drummer: but he could tell him a great many strange things which he had seen in his travels.

So he told him prettily enough, while the poor turnip listened very carefully; and the more he listened, the more he forgot, and the more water ran out of him. Tom thought he was crying: but it was only his poor brains running away, from being worked so hard; and as Tom talked, the unhappy turnip streamed down all over with juice, and split and shrank till nothing was left of him but rind and water; whereat Tom ran away in a fright, for he thought he might be taken up for killing the turnip.

But, on the contrary, the turnip's parents were highly delighted, and considered him a saint and a martyr, and put up a long inscription over his tomb about his wonderful talents, early development, and unparalleled precocity.


Tom was so puzzled and frightened with all he saw, that he was longing to ask the meaning of it; and at last he stumbled over a respectable old [walking] stick lying half covered with earth. But a very stout and worthy stick it was, for it belonged to good Roger Ascham in old time, and had carved on its head [a picture of] King Edward the Sixth, with the Bible in his hand.

"You see," said the stick, "there were as pretty little children once as you could wish to see, and might have been so still if they had been only left to grow up like human beings, and then handed over to me; but their foolish fathers and mothers, instead of letting them pick flowers, and make dirt-pies, and get birds' nests, and dance round the gooseberry bush, as little children should, kept them always at lessons, working, working, working, learning week-day lessons all week-days, and Sunday lessons all Sunday, and weekly examinations every Saturday, and monthly examinations every month, and yearly examinations every year, everything seven times over, as if once was not enough, and enough as good as a feast--till their brains grew big, and their bodies grew small, and they were all changed into turnips, with little but water inside; and still their foolish parents actually pick the leaves off them as fast as they grow, lest they should have anything green about them."

"Ah!" said Tom, "if dear Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby knew of it she would send them a lot of tops, and balls, and marbles, and ninepins, and make them all as jolly as sand-boys."

"It would be no use," said the stick. "They can't play now, if they tried. Don't you see how their legs have turned to roots and grown into the ground, by never taking any exercise, but sapping and moping always in the same place? But here comes the Examiner-of-all-Examiners. So you had better get away, I warn you, or he will examine you and your dog into the bargain [omission]. There is no escaping out of his hands, for his nose is nine thousand miles long, and can go down chimneys, and through keyholes, upstairs, downstairs, in my lady's chamber, examining all little boys, and the little boys' tutors likewise. But when he is thrashed--so Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid has promised me--I shall have the thrashing of him: and if I don't lay it on with a will it's a pity."

Part Three

Tom went off, but rather slowly and surlily; for he was somewhat minded to face this same Examiner-of-all-Examiners, who came striding among the poor turnips, binding heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and laying them on little children's shoulders [omission].

But when he got near, he looked so big and burly and dictatorial, and shouted so loud to Tom, to come and be examined, that Tom ran for his life, and the dog too. And really it was time; for the poor turnips, in their hurry and fright, crammed themselves so fast to be ready for the Examiner, that they burst and popped by dozens all round him, till the place sounded like Aldershot on a field-day, and Tom thought he should be blown into the air, dog and all.

As he went down to the shore he passed the poor turnip's new tomb. But Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid had taken away the epitaph about talents and precocity and development, and put up one of her own instead which Tom thought much more sensible:--

Instruction sore long time I bore,
            And cramming was in vain;
Till heaven did please my woes to ease
            With water on the brain.

So Tom jumped into the sea, and swam on his way, singing:--

Farewell, Tomtoddies all; I thank my stars
            That nought I know save those three royal r's:
Reading and 'riting sure, with 'rithmetic,
            Will help a lad of sense through thin and thick.

[Omitted for length and content: Tom's journeys to the land of Oldwivesfabledom and Leaveheavenalone]

Narration and Discussion

Do you have examinations in your school or homeschool? Are they anything like those of the turnips?

Kingsley wrote that "If dear Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby knew of it she would send them a lot of tops, and balls, and marbles, and ninepins, and make them all as jolly as sand-boys." He also says that children should "pick flowers, and make dirt-pies, and get birds' nests, and dance round the gooseberry bush." But the walking-stick responds, "It would be no use . . . They can't play now, if they tried." Why is having the chance to play, and do these other things, so important?

For further thought: Tom leaves the island of Tomtoddies with a song about how the "royal r's" are quite enough for "a lad of sense." Considering what he has seen of the overstuffed turnips, this might be a very reasonable response. But does that mean we should not study history, geography, science, and the rest?

For even further thought: Kingsley has pointed out several times that it is foolish not to "look backwards," and he also speaks of how important "men of science" can be to the world. Is there another way to go about this?

Reading #30


Tom finally finds Mr. Grimes, who is in a very sad state (and can't even make his pipe work). Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid also joins in this rescue attempt.


truncheon: a short, heavy stick carried by a police officer; a billy club

naviculae: the plural of navicula, a single-celled organism shaped like a boat (which is where it gets its name).

Mother Carey's pass: Do you remember? Mother Carey had given Tom a "passport" to wear around his neck.

he was always in a position of stable equilibrium: he could always manage to balance himself

brass blunderbuss charged up to the muzzle with slugs: an old-fashioned kind of gun, and apparently loaded

porter: doorkeeper

just like Punch: in old English puppet shows

attend: pay attention

atomy: body

small shot: pellets from a gun

I'm beat now: Do you remember how Tom felt b-e-a-t, beat?

ticket-of-leave: paper allowing him to leave the prison


[Mount] Etna: a famous volcano in Sicily


Part One

And at last, after innumerable adventures, each more wonderful than the last, he saw before him a huge building. Tom walked towards [it], wondering what it was, and having a strange fancy that he might find Mr. Grimes inside it; till he saw running toward him, and shouting "Stop!" three or four people, who, when they came nearer, were nothing else than policemen's truncheons, running along without legs or arms.

Tom was not astonished. He was long past that. Besides, he had seen the naviculae in the water move nobody knows how, a hundred times, without arms or legs, or anything to stand in their stead. Neither was he frightened; for he had been doing no harm. So he stopped; and, when the foremost truncheon came up and asked his business, he showed Mother Carey's pass; and the truncheon looked at it in the oddest fashion; for he had one eye in the middle of his upper end, so that when he looked at anything, being quite stiff, he had to slope himself, and poke himself, till it was a wonder why he did not tumble over; but, being quite full of the spirit of justice (as all policemen, and their truncheons, ought to be), he was always in a position of stable equilibrium, whichever way he put himself.

"All right--pass on," said he at last. And then he added: "I had better go with you, young man." And Tom had no objection, for such company was both respectable and safe; so the truncheon coiled its [strap] neatly round its handle, to prevent tripping itself up--for [it] had got loose in running--and marched on by Tom's side.

"Why have you no policeman to carry you?" asked Tom, after a while.

"Because we are not like those clumsy-made truncheons in the land-world, which cannot go without having a whole man to carry them about. We do our own work for ourselves; and do it very well, though I say it who should not."

"Then why have you a [strap] to your handle?" asked Tom.

"To hang ourselves up by, of course, when we are off duty."

Tom had got his answer, and had no more to say, till they came up to the great iron door of the prison. And there the truncheon knocked twice, with its own head.

Part Two

A wicket in the door opened, and out looked a tremendous old brass blunderbuss charged up to the muzzle with slugs, who was the porter; and Tom started back a little at the sight of him.

"What case is this?" he asked in a deep voice, out of his broad bell mouth.

"If you please, sir, it is no case; only a young gentleman from her ladyship, who wants to see Grimes, the master-sweep."

"Grimes?" said the blunderbuss. And he pulled in his muzzle, perhaps to look over his prison-lists.

"Grimes is up chimney No. 345," he said from inside. "So the young gentleman had better go on to the roof." Tom looked up at the enormous wall, which seemed at least ninety miles high, and wondered how he should ever get up; but, when he hinted that to the truncheon, it settled the matter in a moment. For it whisked round, and gave him such a shove behind as sent him up to the roof in no time, with his little dog under his arm.

And there he walked along the leads, till he met another truncheon, and told him his errand.

"Very good," it said. "Come along: but it will be of no use. He is the most unremorseful, hard-hearted, foul-mouthed fellow I have in charge; and thinks about nothing but beer and pipes, which are not allowed here, of course."

So they walked along over the leads, and very sooty they were, and Tom thought the chimneys must want sweeping very much. But he was surprised to see that the soot did not stick to his feet, or dirty them in the least. Neither did the live coals, which were lying about in plenty, burn him, [as he was a water-baby].


At last they came to chimney No. 345. Out of the top of it, his head and shoulders just showing, stuck poor Mr. Grimes, so sooty, and bleared, and ugly, that Tom could hardly bear to look at him. And in his mouth was a pipe; but it was not alight; though he was [trying to draw smoke from it] with all his might.

"Attention, Mr. Grimes," said the truncheon, "here is a gentleman come to see you." But Mr. Grimes only said bad words; and kept grumbling, "My pipe won't draw. My pipe won't draw."

"Keep a civil tongue, and attend!" said the truncheon; and popped up just like Punch, hitting Grimes such a crack over the head with itself, that his brains rattled inside like a dried walnut in its shell. He tried to get his hands out, and rub the place: but he could not, for they were stuck fast in the chimney. Now he was forced to attend.

"Hey!" he said, "why, it's Tom! I suppose you have come here to laugh at me, you spiteful little atomy?" Tom assured him he had not, but only wanted to help him.

"I don't want anything except beer, and that I can't get; and a light to this bothering pipe, and that I can't get either."

"I'll get you one," said Tom; and he took up a live coal (there were plenty lying about) and put it to Grimes' pipe: but it went out instantly.

"It's no use," said the truncheon, leaning itself up against the chimney and looking on. "I tell you, it is no use. His heart is so cold that it freezes everything that comes near him. You will see that presently, plain enough."

"Oh, of course, it's my fault. Everything's always my fault," said Grimes. "Now don't go to hit me again" (for the truncheon started upright, and looked very wicked); "you know, if my arms were only free, you daren't hit me then." The truncheon leant back against the chimney, and took no notice of the personal insult, like a well-trained policeman as it was, though he was ready enough to avenge any transgression against morality or order.

"But can't I help you in any other way? Can't I help you to get out of this chimney?" said Tom.

"No," interposed the truncheon; "he has come to the place where everybody must help themselves; and he will find it out, I hope, before he has done with me."

Part Three

"Oh, yes," said Grimes, "of course it's me. Did I ask to be brought here into the prison? Did I ask to be set to sweep your foul chimneys? Did I ask to have lighted straw put under me to make me go up? Did I ask to stick fast in the very first chimney of all, because it was so shamefully clogged up with soot? Did I ask to stay here--I don't know how long--a hundred years, I do believe, and never get my pipe, nor my beer, nor nothing fit for a beast, let alone a man?"

"No," answered a solemn voice behind. "No more did Tom, when you behaved to him in the very same way."

It was Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid. And, when the truncheon saw her, it started bolt upright--Attention!--and made such a low bow, that if it had not been full of the spirit of justice, it must have trembled on its end, and probably hurt its one eye. And Tom made his bow too.

"Oh, ma'am," he said, "don't think about me; that's all past and gone, and good times and bad times and all times pass over. But may not I help poor Mr. Grimes? Mayn't I try and get some of these bricks away, that he may move his arms?"

"You may try, of course," she said. So Tom pulled and tugged at the bricks: but he could not move one. And then he tried to wipe Mr. Grimes' face: but the soot would not come off.

"Oh, dear!" he said. "I have come all this way, through all these terrible places, to help you, and now I am of no use at all."

"You had best leave me alone," said Grimes; "you are a good-natured forgiving little chap, and that's truth; but you'd best be off. The hail's coming on soon, and it will beat the eyes out of your little head."

"What hail?"

"Why, hail that falls every evening here; and, till it comes close to me, it's like so much warm rain: but then it turns to hail over my head, and knocks me about like small shot."

"That hail will never come any more," said the strange lady. "I have told you before what it was. It was your mother's tears, those which she shed when she prayed for you by her bedside; but your cold heart froze it into hail. But she is gone to heaven now, and will weep no more for her graceless son."

Then Grimes was silent awhile; and then he looked very sad. "So my old mother's gone, and I never there to speak to her! Ah! a good woman she was, and might have been a happy one, in her little school there in Vendale, if it hadn't been for me and my bad ways."

"Did she keep the school in Vendale?" asked Tom. And then he told Grimes all the story of his going to her house, and how she could not abide the sight of a chimney-sweep, and then how kind she was, and how he turned into a water-baby.

"Ah!" said Grimes, "good reason she had to hate the sight of a chimney-sweep. I ran away from her and took up with the sweeps, and never let her know where I was, nor sent her a penny to help her, and now it's too late--too late!" said Mr. Grimes.

And he began crying and blubbering like a great baby, till his pipe dropped out of his mouth, and broke all to bits. "Oh, dear, if I was but a little chap in Vendale again, to see the clear beck, and the apple-orchard, and the yew-hedge, how different I would go on! But it's too late now. So you go along, you kind little chap, and don't stand to look at a man crying, that's old enough to be your father, and never feared the face of man, nor of worse neither. But I'm beat now, and beat I must be. I've made my bed, and I must lie on it. Foul I would be, and foul I am, as an Irishwoman said to me once; and little I heeded it. It's all my own fault; but it's too late." And he cried so bitterly that Tom began crying too.

"Never too late," said the fairy, in such a strange soft new voice that Tom looked up at her; and she was so beautiful for the moment, that Tom half fancied she was her sister.

No more was it too late. For, as poor Grimes cried and blubbered on, his own tears did what his mother's could not do, and Tom's could not do, and nobody's on earth could do for him; for they washed the soot off his face and off his clothes; and then they washed the mortar away from between the bricks; and the chimney crumbled down; and Grimes began to get out of it.

Up jumped the truncheon, and was going to hit him on the crown a tremendous thump, and drive him down again like a cork into a bottle. But the strange lady put it aside. "Will you obey me if I give you a chance?"

"As you please, ma'am. You're stronger than me--that I know too well, and wiser than me, I know too well also. And, as for being my own master, I've fared ill enough with that as yet. So whatever your ladyship pleases to order me; for I'm beat, and that's the truth."

"Be it so then--you may come out. But remember, disobey me again, and into a worse place still you go."

"I beg pardon, ma'am, but I never disobeyed you that I know of. I never had the honour of setting eyes upon you till I came to these ugly quarters."

"Never saw me? Who said to you, Those that will be foul, foul they will be?"

Grimes looked up; and Tom looked up too; for the voice was that of the Irishwoman who met them the day that they went out together to Harthover. "I gave you your warning then: but you gave it yourself a thousand times before and since. Every bad word that you said--every cruel and mean thing that you did--every time that you got tipsy--every day that you went dirty--you were disobeying me, whether you knew it or not."

"If I'd only known, ma'am--"

"You knew well enough that you were disobeying something, though you did not know it was me. But come out and take your chance. Perhaps it may be your last."

So Grimes stepped out of the chimney, and really, if it had not been for the scars on his face, he looked as clean and respectable as a master-sweep need look.

"Take him away," said she to the truncheon, "and give him his ticket-of-leave."

"And what is he to do, ma'am?"

"Get him to sweep out the crater of Etna; he will find some very steady men working out their time there, who will teach him his business: but mind, if that crater gets choked again, and there is an earthquake in consequence, bring them all to me, and I shall investigate the case very severely."

So the truncheon marched off Mr. Grimes, looking as meek as a drowned worm. And for aught I know, or do not know, he is sweeping the crater of Etna to this very day.

Narration and Discussion

Why were Grimes' own tears the only ones that could melt away the soot and the chimney?

Was Tom's mission successful?

Reading #31


"Your work here is done," says the fairy to Tom. But what is next for him?


keep your eye single: stay focused on the important things (Matthew 6:22)

dog days: the hottest days of the year


Part One

"And now," said the fairy to Tom, "your work here is done. You may as well go back again."

"I should be glad enough to go," said Tom, "but how am I to get up that great hole again, now the steam has stopped blowing?"

"I will take you up the backstairs. But I must bandage your eyes first; for I never allow anybody to see those backstairs of mine."

[omission for length]

So she tied the bandage on his eyes with one hand, and with the other she took it off. "Now," she said, "you are safe up the stairs." Tom opened his eyes very wide, and his mouth too; for he had not, as he thought, moved a single step. But, when he looked round him, there could be no doubt that he was safe up the backstairs, whatsoever they may be, which no man is going to tell you, for the plain reason that no man knows.

The first thing which Tom saw was the black cedars, high and sharp against the rosy dawn; and St. Brendan's Isle reflected double in the still broad silver sea. The wind sang softly in the cedars, and the water sang among the caves; the sea-birds sang as they streamed out into the ocean, and the land-birds as they built among the boughs; and the air was so full of song that it stirred St. Brendan and his hermits, as they slumbered in the shade; and they moved their good old lips, and sang their morning hymn amid their dreams. But among all the songs one came across the water more sweet and clear than all; for it was the song of a young girl's voice.

And what was the song which she sang?

Ah, my little man, I am too old to sing that song, and you too young to understand it. But have patience, and keep your eye single, and your hands clean, and you will learn some day to sing it yourself, without needing any man to teach you.

Part Two

And as Tom neared the island, there sat upon a rock the most graceful creature that ever was seen, looking down, with her chin upon her hand, and paddling with her feet in the water. And when they came to her she looked up, and behold it was Ellie.

"Oh, Miss Ellie," said he, "how you are grown!"

"Oh, Tom," said she, "how you are grown too!" And no wonder; they were both quite grown up--he into a tall man, and she into a beautiful woman.

"Perhaps I may be grown," she said. "I have had time enough; for I have been sitting here waiting for you many a hundred years, till I thought you were never coming."

"Many a hundred years?" thought Tom; but he had seen so much in his travels that he had quite given up being astonished; and, indeed, he could think of nothing but Ellie. So he stood and looked at Ellie, and Ellie looked at him; and they liked the employment so much that they stood and looked for seven years more, and neither spoke nor stirred.

Part Three

At last they heard the fairy say: "Attention, children. Are you never going to look at me again?"

"We have been looking at you all this while," they said. And so they thought they had been.

"Then look at me once more," said she. They looked--and both of them cried out at once, "Oh, who are you, after all?"

"You are our dear Mrs. Doasyouwouldbedoneby."

"No, you are good Mrs. Bedonebyasyoudid; but you are grown quite beautiful now!"

"To you," said the fairy, "but look again."

"You are Mother Carey," said Tom, in a very low, solemn voice; for he had found out something which made him very happy, and yet frightened him more than all that he had ever seen.

"But you are grown quite young again."

"To you," said the fairy. "Look again."

"You are the Irishwoman who met me the day I went to Harthover!"

And when they looked she was neither of them, and yet all of them at once.

"My name is written in my eyes, if you have eyes to see it there." And they looked into her great, deep, soft eyes, and they changed again and again into every hue, as the light changes in a diamond.

"Now read my name," said she, at last. And her eyes flashed, for one moment, clear, white, blazing light: but the children could not read her name; for they were dazzled, and hid their faces in their hands.

"Not yet, young things, not yet," said she, smiling; and then she turned to Ellie. "You may take him home with you now on Sundays, Ellie. He has won his spurs in the great battle, and become fit to go with you and be a man; because he has done the thing he did not like."

So Tom went home with Ellie on Sundays, and sometimes on week-days, too; and he is now a great man of science, and can plan railroads, and steam-engines, and electric telegraphs, and rifled guns, and so forth; and knows everything about everything, except why a hen's egg don't turn into a crocodile, and two or three other little things which no one will know till the coming of the Cocqcigrues.

And all this from what he learnt when he was a water-baby, underneath the sea.

And of course Tom married Ellie?

My dear child, what a silly notion! Don't you know that no one ever marries in a fairy tale, under the rank of a prince or a princess?

And Tom's dog?

Oh, you may see him any clear night in July; for the old Dog Star was so worn out by the last three hot summers that there have been no dog days since; so that they had to take him down and put Tom's dog up in his place. Therefore, as new brooms sweep clean, we may hope for some warm weather this year. And that is the end of my story.


And now, my dear little man, what should we learn from this parable?

We should learn thirty-seven or thirty-nine things, I am not exactly sure which; but one thing, at least, we may learn, and that is this--when we see efts in the pond, never to throw stones at them, or catch them with crooked pins, or put them into vivariums with sticklebacks, that the sticklebacks may prick them in their poor little stomachs, and make them jump out of the glass into somebody's work-box, and so come to a bad end.

For these efts are nothing else but water-babies who are [foolish] and dirty, and will not learn their lessons and keep themselves clean; and, therefore (as comparative anatomists will tell you fifty years hence, though they are not learned enough to tell you now), their skulls grow fat, their jaws grow out, and their brains grow small, and their tails grow long, and they lose all their ribs (which I am sure you would not like to do), and their skins grow dirty and spotted, and they never get into the clear rivers, much less into the great wide sea, but hang about in dirty ponds, and live in the mud, and eat worms, as they deserve to do.

But that is no reason why you should ill-use them; but only why you should pity them and be kind to them, and hope that someday they will wake up, and be ashamed of their nasty, dirty, lazy, [foolish] life, and try to amend, and become something better once more.

For, perhaps, if they do so, then after 379,423 years, nine months, thirteen days, two hours, and twenty-one minutes (for aught that appears to the contrary), if they work very hard and wash very hard all that time, their brains may grow bigger, and their jaws grow smaller, and their ribs come back, and their tails wither off, and they will turn into water-babies again, and perhaps after that into land-babies; and after that perhaps into grown men.

You know they won't?

Very well, I daresay you know best. But you see, some folks have a great liking for those poor little efts. They never did anybody any harm, or could if they tried; and their only fault is, that they do no good--any more than some thousands of their betters. But what with ducks, and what with pike, and what with sticklebacks, and what with water-beetles, and what with naughty boys, they are "sae sair hadden doun," as the Scotsmen say, that it is a wonder how they live; and some folks can't help hoping, with good Bishop Butler, that they may have another chance, to make things fair and even, somewhere, somewhen, somehow.

Meanwhile, do you learn your lessons, and thank God that you have plenty of cold water to wash in; and wash in it too. And then, if my story is not true, something better is; and if I am not quite right, still you will be, as long as you stick to hard work and cold water. But remember always, as I told you at first, that this is all a fairy tale, and only fun and pretense: and, therefore, you are not to believe a word of it, even if it is true.

Narration and Discussion

Have you learned thirty-seven or thirty-nine things from this story?

Kingsley says, "And then, if my story is not true, something better is." What might that be?

Entirely Optional Exam Questions for The Water-Babies

Tell what you remember about one of these stories:

1. How Tom became a water-baby

2. About Tom and the sea-toffees

3. About something Tom saw in the Other-end-of-Nowhere

4. How Tom tried to help Mr. Grimes


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Ballard, J. G. "J. G. Ballard." In The Pleasure of Reading. Edited by Antonia Fraser. Bloomsbury Paperbacks, an Imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 2015.

Buckley, Andrew. "Bilbo's Last Song: The Power of Fairy Stories." Coffee With Keats substack. June 29, 2024.

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Esolen, Anthony M. Ten Ways to Destroy the Imagination of Your Child. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2010.

Glass, Karen. Know and Tell: The Art of Narration. N.p., 2018.

Glass, Karen. Much May Be Done With Sparrows. N.p., 2024.

Hamilton, Edith. Mythology. New York, NY: Back Bay Books / Little, Brown and Company, 1998. (First published 1942.)

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Tanglewood Tales. Boston: Ticknor, Reed, and Fields, 1853.

"Jo." "The Water-Babies, Charles Kingsley/Looe, Cornwall." Return of a Native: Landscapes of Literature, Art and Song. 2024.

Kingsley, Charles. Glaucus, or, The Wonders of the Shore. Cambridge/London: Macmillan and Co., 1859.

Kingsley, Charles. Madam How and Lady Why, or, First Lessons in Earth Lore for Children. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1901.

Lehmann, R. C. (1904). Living books in the teaching of history. Parents' Review, 15, 1, 25-32

Lewis, C. S. The Abolition of Man. New York, N.Y. The Macmillan Company, 1947.

Lewis, C. S. Prince Caspian. London: Geoffrey Bles, 1951.

Lewis, C. S. The Magician's Nephew. London: The Bodley Head, 1955.

Lewis, C. S. Voyage of the Dawn Treader. London: Geoffrey Bles, 1955.

Mason, Charlotte M. Home Education. Vol. 1 of The Original Home Schooling Series. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1989. Originally published 1935 by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd. (London). Page references are to the 1989 edition.

Mason, Charlotte M. Ourselves. Vol. 4 of The Original Home Schooling Series. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1989. Originally published 1905 by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd. (London). Page references are to the 1989 edition.

Mason, Charlotte M. Parents and Children. Vol. 2 of The Original Home Schooling Series. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1989. Originally published 1904 by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd. (London). Page references are to the 1989 edition.

Mason, Charlotte M. A Philosophy of Education. Vol. 6 of The Original Home Schooling Series. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1989. Originally published 1925 as An Essay Towards a Philosophy of Education by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd. (London). Page references are to the 1989 edition.

Neill, Anna. "Marvelous Plasticity and the Fortunes of Species in The Water Babies." Philosophy and Literature 38.1 (April, 2014) Retrieved from KU ScholarWorks.

"One Hippopotami Lyrics." STANDS4 LLC, 2024. Web. 4 Jul 2024.

Turley, Steven R. Beauty Matters: Creating a High Aesthetic in School Culture. N.p., 2018.

"The Wire." Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Season 2, Ep. 22, Paramount Pictures, 1994.

Finally, I need to give credit to Julien Miquel, @YouTubeJulien, whose how-to-pronounce-names videos were invaluable in preparing these notes.

Anne White, 2024

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